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This should be pretty easy to demonstrate. Over the two generations, there would be 200-300 mutations in the entire genome of 3.3*109 base pairs, i.e. about 1*10-7 of the base pairs should be altered. If Time Traveler is male, for example, imply sequencing the Y chromosome and mitochrondrial DNA and comparing to the paternal grandfather and maternal ...


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I can't fault @WYSIWYG for mentioning the cited Vogelstein article in providing an answer. You point to what seems like a great explanation for why certain cancers arise in some tissues but not others. However, for those who look closely this paper has some serious errors in its derivation of the model, and for good reason it has come under strong fire in ...


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There are a number of ways to screen for mutator genes. One straightforward approach in bacteria is to take an antibiotic sensitive non-mutator strain, grow it up, and expose to different antibiotics. Cells that survive in the presence of multiple antibiotics have acquired multiple de novo resistance mutations and thus are highly enriched for mutator ...


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You should have a look at this interesting article published earlier this year in Science. There are two mechanisms by which cells can accumulate mutations in DNA: Replication errors External physicochemical agents such as UV, carcinogens etc In the abovementioned paper, the authors classify cancers into two types: That arise predominantly because of ...


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Haemophiliac females are rare but they can survive just like affected males do. However, the case is slightly more complicated in women because of menstruation. I could not find an article from any medical journal but this site seems authentic enough for a reference.


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Others have already touched the important points. Consider this as a summary. What gives HIV the ability to mutate? All organisms mutate by two mechanisms: Replication errors Mutagenesis by physical/chemical agents that cause a chemical change (lesion) on DNA The main enzyme responsible for HIV replication is reverse transcriptase which makes a DNA ...



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