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2

From the limited information, I can provide the following but I am not sure if this is what you are looking for. Also, I still don't see the statement where the author concludes we get the Linear regression model $E(q_i) = Aq_i + C$ which is odd notation since it says the expected value is a linear regression. In fact, if it is a linear regression, it should ...


5

The frequency fluctuations will be determined by a standard model of selection as found in any basic population genetics text. In this scenario they take a very basic form: during each long period $i$ the frequency of $A_1$ increases from $f_i$ to $f_i\cdot (1+s_1)^{n_1}$ and during each short period $j$ the frequency of $A_1$ decreases from $f_j$ to ...


0

There was never a human that was not bipedal - so we never became bipedal we've always been that way because it was our who ancestors became bipedal. And there are many hypotheses for what bipedalism arose in the primate line. The evolution of bipedalism in hominids and reduced group size in chimpanzees: alternative responses to decreasing resource ...


-2

I would wager a guess that time had something to do with it: a non-bipedal ape could evolve to become bipedal faster than it could evolve to be simply larger in all aspects to be taller. Another possible reason would be food consumption: changing ones stance doesn't require an increase in body mass, therefore it doesn't require an increase in food ...


0

Regarding the equivalence of MLS and kin selection, here is how I see the equivalence between these two approaches to selection. MLS says that cooperation is favored when the response to between-group selection outweighs within-group selection. Price's equation tells us that this happens when the genetic variance between-groups is higher than the genetic ...


3

To obtain a full survival curve (basically a full life table) you would need to make quite a number of assumptions, since the data for paleolithic societies is scattered and probably biased. This is however not a field I know well, but I can point you to one recent paper (White, 2014) that explores how the ratio of young and old individuals in a population ...


2

Infant mortality was high during the paleolithic, so the fecundity of females had to be quite a bit higher than 2 to sustain viable populations. A recent paper by White (2014) that explores how the ratio of young and old individuals in a population relates to demographic rates compiles data on hunter-gatherer societies from previous studies that you will ...



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