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I do not think there is a reproductive advantage in gray hair - it's the other way around: Normal colored hair has a reproductive advantage. But it also has a cost in terms of substances needed to build it. I make the assumption here that grey hair - which is often also more sparse - has a lower cost in terms of material. I think we are investing the ...


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Presumably this means that at least some grey haired humans have noticeable reproductive advantage, or maybe they had it in the recent past. No it doesn't. Natural selection is not that strong, it doesn't optimize every single possible physical trait towards maximum reproducing. And as others have mentioned, having lots of grey hair usually ...


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Here is a simple proof that the probability of fixation given an infinite time is indeed p (in a finite population, otherwise there will be no fixation): Let's look at all 2N gametes in the population. Eventualy, according to the Wright-Fisher model, only one of them will be represented in the population. The probability for this gamete to be of an allele ...


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It all depends on hunger. As in comment (@Remi.b), it has been mentioned, an animal won't throw if they are starving. For example monkeys/apes only eat part of a fruit and then throw the rest. Monkeys and apes can differentiate between good and bad part of the fruits. So, they eat what they can and if the color looks different (or however they ...


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I think Wallace (1968) developed the ideas of hard and soft selection, as they relate to genetic load. He further explains the concept in Wallace (1975). As the idea was his, I'd go with Wallace's definition over Whitlock's. I haven't had time to watch the Whitlock video to see if they are saying more or less the same thing overall. Consider a hypothetical ...


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In the linked paper, the authors discuss this as sex-based gene expression that evolved by sex-specific selection. The expression is not limited to one sex (which are sex-limited genes). Sex-biased genes are expressed by both sexes, but differently between sexes.


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Is SS clearly different from Natural Selection (NS)? Is SS nested within NS or are NS and SS two different and (anti- or not) parallel processes? Darwin, in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex defined sexual selection as a type of selection that "depends on the advantage which certain individuals have over other individuals of the ...


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A trait is said to be adaptive when it causes fitness to increase. Fitness is generally understood as the (relative) contribution to future generations in terms of offspring or genes. The trait is selected for by the environment and hence increases fitness. In the paper of Dey et al. this is the fitness of the parent birds. Hatching asynchrony causes size ...



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