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1

The key point is that the first equation is describing frequencies, i.e., $\sum_{i=1}^n x_i = 1$, so there are only $n-1$ degrees of freedom. For instance, if $n=2$ (as in Hawk-Dove), you can totally describe the state of the system with just $x_1$, because $x_2$ is just $x_2=1-x_1$. This constraint is enforced by adjusting $\phi$. To convert the ...


0

The heterozygous advantage generally lowers natural selection against the carriers of mutated alele, because it helps them to survive some specific conditions (which have to have some major impact on the survival rate). This means these individuals have bigger chances of reproducing, which means spread of the alele. Sickle cell anaemia is one good example ...


4

There are a few issues your question brings up. First, the idea that species evolve from simple to complex is actually not a prediction or inevitable consequence of evolution by natural selection. The terms "simple" and "complex" themselves are ill-defined. For instance, if you defined "complex" to be size of the genome, the most complex organism found to ...


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You can find a discussion of this topic in the literature: Mitchell, Edward. 1970. Pigmentation pattern evolution in delphinid cetaceans: an essay in adaptive coloration. Canadian journal of Zoology 48(4): 717-740. Perrin, W.F., 1972. Color patterns of spinner porpoises (Stenella cf. S. longirostris) of the eastern Pacific and Hawaii, with comments on ...


2

Here is how I would explain what a genetic signature is: A genetic signature of a certain type of evolutionary history (type of selection or demography) refers to the effect that this specific type evolutionary history has on genomic properties of populations.* We are interested in understanding such signatures because knowing the asociation between a ...



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