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The evolutionary pressure on the location of the pituitary is likely not the reason why it resides at the basis of the brain. Instead, its (partly) neural origin makes it anatomically (and functionally) part of the brain. Why would it migrate out of the brain when it doesn't have to? What would the evolutionary pressure be on increasing the length of the ...


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I found two references that talk about the circle of Willis in different kind of mammals so i think it's right to say that this particular anastomotic system of arteries is not exclusive to humans. Here are the two references: http://www.neuroanatomy.org/2008/054_065.pdf http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14651482


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Short answer Training increases white and gray matter densities in the brain. This may reflect increases in neuronal cell counts especially in the hippocampus. In the cortex, however, such observed changes are probably more reflective of other processes, such as synaptogenesis. Background Gray matter is generally viewed as being the neuronal cell bodies, ...



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