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The Worm Atlas you cited is NOT just a "model." The neuronal cell coordinates were determined from an actual 3-D reconstruction of a worm based on serial thin section electron micrographs. The serial sections were manually digitized to permit annotation and analysis using computer graphics. The annotation (over a period of years) established the synaptic ...


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The primary somatosensory and primary motor cortices are distinct cortical areas. According to the structural classification of Brodmann, the primary somatosensory cortex is referred to as Brodmann's areas 1,2 and 3 (BA1, BA2 and BA3). The primary motor cortex is referred to as Brodmann's area 4 (BA4). The primary sensory cortex is sometimes denoted by S1, ...


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Memories are not stored in just one part of the brain. They are widely distributed throughout the cortex and neurons. The long-term memories are stored throughout the brain as groups of neurons, the brain stores memories in three ways--Short-term memories, Sensory memory and Long-term memory the human brain cell can hold 5 times as much of information as ...


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It seems that speech can be recovered after total glossectomy, although it's not a short or an easy process. Here's one case: a case study, reporting the evaluation and evolution findings of the speech-language pathology rehabilitation of the swallowing and speech functions of a 58-year-old man submitted to total glossectomy in June 2009. After ...


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You can whisper without a larynx. "Patients who have undergone partial or full laryngectomy are typically unable to speak anything more than hoarse whispers, without the aid of prostheses or specialized speaking techniques." (source) So the remainder of the vocal tract is capable of enough modulation to present typical human speech in many languages. I ...


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Speech is generated by generating a frequency spectrum with the vocal folds, and then filtering it with the upper vocal tract. Whistling is done by blowing air over shaped tongue and lips. So, give someone a laryngectomy. They still retain the upper vocal tract (and so can still whistle), but they cannot generate the source vibrations to speak. Do it as ...


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Short answer(s) Someone with a damaged larynx may still speak with the use of a speech aid (electronic larynx). The ability to understand speech does not necessarily mean one can speak normally. There are neurological disorders where folks can understand speech, but have difficulty producing it. Background A full removal of the larynx (laryngectomy) ...



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