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Norepinephrine is converted to epinephrine by phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT). In mammals PNMT is just one member of a large family of methyltransferases which use S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) as a cofactor to provide a methyl group. These methyltransferases are involved in a very diverse set of pathways including the synthesis of nucleic ...


They are two different mechanisms. Opium is arguably one of the oldest herbal medicines, being used as analgesic, sedative and antidiarrheal drug for thousands of years. These effects mirror the actions of the endogenous opioid system and are mediated by the principal μ-, κ- and δ-opioid receptors. In the gut, met-enkephalin, leu-enkephalin, β-endorphin ...

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