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1

I think my mistake was to believe that the electric field has to be somewhat perpendicular to the membrane, so that it can directly apply a voltage difference across the membrane, and that the resistance inside and outside the axon was the same, so that a tangential field was useless. In fact these are false : depolarization and action potential creation ...


5

If firing rate is from 1 Hz to 200 Hz, 100 trillion to 20 quadrillion synaptic firings. Neuronal (say, measured from soma) firings will add up to 86 billion to 17.2 trillion action potentials per second. It important to remember, that synaptic firings "sum up" in soma or interfere between each other, so the are more of those. Read more: ...


3

No, not in the neuronal level. Because IMHO this is an ill-posed problem. EEG combined with MRI won't have the resolution to do solve the inverse problem of neuronal network simulation. There are at least hundreds of thousands of neurons that would be involved in your specific behavioral task, and you have at most a few hundred electrodes. You'll have to ...


0

as far as I know the brain processes data in stages the neurons themselves are not purely binary as in a computer in that every action has a predetermined output. the neuron response tends to be goverened by sigmoid function output and hence the use of this function in artificial neural networks. further, the synapses have strengths that is depended on the ...


3

The brain activity is electric and chemical. The male adult human brain contains about 86 billion neurons (Azevedo et al). There is about 100 trillion connections between them. Solving a puzzle like that is not easy.. what sort of breakthroughs would be necessary to intercept these signals and interpret them as exact thoughts? What you are referring to ...


2

Copied from my comment: It just means a sound that starts at a low frequency and goes up to a higher frequency like a whistle sound. Perhaps someone can give you an example sound file and/or a spectrogram representation of it.


5

While action potentials are usually binary, you should note that synaptic communication between neurons is generally not binary. Most synapses work by neurotransmittors, and this is a chemically mediated graded response that, for example, act on voltage-gated ion channels. So even though action potentials are often binary, communication between neurons are ...


10

First of all, I would like to point out that making analogy between digital computers and the brain is often very misleading. That being said, my answer is, some scientists believe so, some don't. Several things to consider: Some neural systems are not spiking. C. elegans for example has a nervous system that is entirely analogue. Human nervous system ...


2

There's a philosophical issue here: if you believe "thought" originates outside of the physical brain, you are probably some sort of dualist. However, I believe it is more likely that the brain is the machine that enables (apparent) consciousness and thoughts. If you believe "thought" causes neurons to fire, you might not be able to find a scientific ...


6

Short answer Receptor cells are specialized neurons Background There are, globally, three types of neurons (Eckert's Animal Physiology): Sensory neurons: these cells transmit information from external stimuli (e.g., sound, light, pressure), or from internal stimuli (e.g., blood oxygen level or head orientation); Interneurons: these cells connect ...


4

This paper addresses the question that you are asking. The study is based on conscious decision making in rats. Performance of rats were assessed in the following task: The rats have to poke their snout into a waiting port until a auditory signal (beep) is heard. After first beep the rats can get a small reward (small amount of water) in the reward port. ...


6

I will go through your list of questions below: I wanted to know how similar is our nervous system to [the circulatory system]? They are very different, but as in every comparison of very complex systems, there is some overlap. The circulatory system carries fluids, the nervous system electrical signals so they are functionally not alike. However, both ...


10

Short answer Yes, brain transplantation is technically possible, but only for short periods of time, and only in experimental settings. Background In terms of a full-brain transplant there has been only one group that have made serious attempts in doing this (according to wikipedia and a literature search on my end). In the 1960's White and ...


2

The phenomenon you describe is known as tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon, where you know there is a word, and you feel it's "right on the tip of the tongue, but doesn't come out". The phenomenon is normal and tends to worsen with age. Only in case it becomes so strong that it seriously interferes with daily life, it can be considered a medical condition (anomic ...



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