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Dopamine is one of many neurotransmitters which modulate information passage between one brain area to another. Dopamine is thought to play important role in pleasure, addiction, and learning.Massive increase in the amount of dopamine released in the brain during video game play, the releasing of dopamine are in areas thought to control reward and ...


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Dizziness is caused by a continuing rotation of the fluids in the semi-circular canals of the vestibular system that transmit rotation information to the brain. After prolonged rotation of the body, the circular canal fluids are engaged in a rotating motion. This fluid motion continues even when the body has stopped moving. The persistent fluid rotation is ...


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Probably don't do any experiments that involve shoving reptiles in a sack and swinging them around your head, as someone will surely call the ASPCA on you. The type of dizziness that is associated with spinning around is called "vertigo". From wikipedia: Repetitive spinning, as in familiar childhood games, can induce short-lived vertigo by disrupting ...


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Hraish is right about the relationship between emotions and gut-brain axis. Stress hormones released by the brain are responsible for the gut-brain reflexes. Anxiety is related to stress and stress hormones are released when anxiety is expressed by the individual. Irritable bowel syndrome(IBS) symptom-based diagnosis, which is having symptoms such as ...


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Apparently there is the effect that your emotions are responded to by the gut brain which it does not say exactly in my supporting material. the article says it has an effect though. that's good enough for me because i experience butterflies sometimes in certain moods. a second consideration is medication although i'm sure you were considering something ...


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The question is relatively broad and one should take into account that the brain not only consists of neurons, but also glial cells (supportive cells) and pre-mitotic neuronal stem cells. Furthermore, as critical fellow-scientists have indicated, developmental stage is very important, as the developing embryonic brain is very different from the adult brain. ...


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Interesting question! There has been at least one study that bypassed a spinal lesion site with autografted neuronal tissue (Tadie et al., 2004 - doi:10.1089/089771502320317069). The study participant regained voluntary motor skills 8 months after bypass surgery. The surgery involved the implantation of nerve autografts between the rostral spinal ventral ...


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Most of the time, calcium is not the most important ion in terms of active propagation of an action potential along an axon. It is usually sodium and potassium which play the key roles here. In most living things the concentrations of ions for the intracellular and extracellular solutions are similar. For an action potential, you usually have an influx of ...


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Hydrophobia is mostly attributed to rabies, most of the sources refer rabies as hydrophobia. Technically Hydrophobia is the intense fear of water. Hydrophobia is an intense, irrational fear of water that can be commonly diagnosed at childhood and should be treated as soon as possible. Certain types of hydrophobia may also appear in later stages of ...


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You are correct that hydrophobia is often considered pathognomonic of rabies. However, I offer for your consideration: Hydrophobia as a rare presentation of Cotard's syndrome: a case report.1 Cotard's syndrome itself is a bizarre psychiatric condition that the authors of the above paper define well: Cotard’s syndrome is a rare condition where the ...


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The phenomenon Synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which a stimulus in one sensory or cognitive pathway triggers an experience in another. Some hallmarks:1 It tends to be developmental, arising early in childhood. It is involuntary. It is stable over time (i.e. the same stimulus leads to the same sensory experience). Epidemiology The best ...


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This isn't a ridiculous idea; Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation is used in research and even has some use as treatment for depression (http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation/basics/definition/prc-20020555) In TMS a strong, localized magnetic field can disrupt normal functioning of regions of the brain. For instance it ...


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the following is true for humans, I dunno about other animals: schwann cells in peripheral nervous system can rebuild a severed axon if the perineurium of the nerve fibers are sutured together ... the same is not true for oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. Thus only peripheral nerves can regenerate and not nerves located in the central nervous ...


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We already remove old memories (well, more properly unimportant ones) partially in order to make room for new ones There are 3 different levels of storage, but none of them involve an increase of mass. (Distribution of mass, in one sense, but not amount thereof.) I'm not a neuroscientist, but there are one or two lurking around here who can correct anything ...


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I have gone through quite a number of papers using this virus, but I haven't found any definite answer on the maximum insert length. There is an indirect answer, though. The two articles cited below both report possible insert length of up to 3.7kb without any experimental problems. This insert length results in a viral genome which is about 1.9kb longer ...


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“Self-induction” in photosensitive epilepsy is a well-described and fascinating phenomenon. Photosensitivity itself is rare, occurring in only ~5% of patients with epilepsy.1 Among this group it has been estimated2 that 25% self-induce epileptiform activity. The most common methods appear to be passing a hand with open fingers repeatedly across the visual ...


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Balance is tricky and depends on a lot of things, including, to some degree, your sight. Balance is achieved and maintained by a complex set of sensorimotor control systems that include sensory input from vision (sight), proprioception (touch), and the vestibular system (motion, equilibrium, spatial orientation); integration of that sensory input; and motor ...


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Memories are dynamic; that is not equivalent to "memories are evanescent". Cellular structure and composition controls memory, not just a continuous passage of signals. This point is already discussed in the comments. Loss of energy (in the form of ATP) would cause memory deterioration and in some cases neuronal cell death too— strokes, which happen due to ...


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Summary Working memory on a current task could be distorted, but I cannot find a reason to suggest sudden loss of electrical information would permanently alter short or long term memory. Hopefully a neuroscientist can answer with a more electro-chemical oriented answer, but fundamentally I think the experts aren't sure what a memory actually is (there are ...


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I found the answer to my question here, however not linked to a duplicate question, so I'll quote: Memories are represented in the brain as patterns of firing neurons. Let's say, for simplicity, that each neuron can either be on or off. Since there are 86 billion neurons in the brain, we can experience 2^86bn possible brain states. That's a lot. ...


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It depends to some degree on what you define as peripheral vision. Until relatively recently, color vision in the peripheral field has been thought to be substantially less developed than color vision in the central field. Most estimates of peripheral color perception place the limit of trichromatic (RBG) vision at no more than 30 degrees from fixation; ...


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There are two types of photoreceptor in the eye, known as rods and cones. Rods are spread equally throughout the whole retina, whereas cones are focussed in one spot known as the fovea: Cones are the only type of photoreceptor that can sense colour, so rods can only sense black and white. However, rods can work in much lower light and will also work when ...


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It is possible to tag molecular motors with fluorescent proteins. It may impede with its movement but as this paper describes, a variant can be created that doesn't have cargo binding ability. Constitutively active kinesin motors can be generated by truncations that remove autoinhibitory and cargo-binding regions of the polypeptide. For this work, ...


2

Anger is a common emotion in most animals and it is highly related to stress. At time of anger body usually releases stress hormones and the body's way to respond to stress is by sympathetic nervous system activation which results in the fight-or-flight response. Anger is an emotional response related to one's psychological interpretation of having been ...


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In performing a cursory Google Scholar search using the terms "keeping tempo", I found these articles that seem to cover your topic of interest: Schulze, Cordes, and Vorberg (2005) Keeping Synchrony While Tempo Changes: Accelerando and Ritardando Scheirer (1997) Tempo and beat analysis of acoustic musical signals McKinnet and Moelants (2006) Ambiguity in ...


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I would suggest you to learn the basics of fMRI data analysis. It is not easy to understand everything in depth, that is for sure. Anyway, luckily, you can start with some good software (e.g. http://fsl.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl/fslwiki/) that does many things for you. Knowing just the basics can get you far then. For the data, try to have a look at ...


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The answer can be found in PubChem, which is linked in the comment by anongoodnurse. I would not say that Norepinephrine is beta2 adrenomimetic because norepinephrine has many roles such as neurotransmitter. I would just say that Norepinephrine is alpha, beta adrenoagonist. More pieces of information about it from PubChem:


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Very nice question! I'll go through your three questions sequentially. Q1: Why does lower capacitance increase "the effectiveness of nearby nodes" or allow the depolarizing voltage to "travel not by ion diffusion, but as an electric field"? A: Capacitance basically results in sequestering of charge of opposite polarities along the cell membrane, which ...


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The Hodgkin-Huxley model: $$I=C_m\frac{dV}{dt} + g_k(V_m - V_k) + g_{Na}(V_m - V_{Na}) + g_l(V_m- V_l)$$ Where $C_m$ is membrane capacitance per unit area and $g_i$ are membrane conductances. Reducing the number of channels does not affect capacitance per se (it does in a way) but what it basically does is to reduce membrane conductance to leak channels ...


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Actin is required for the neurite architecture and is present throughout the shaft (along the direction of the neurite process) See these images.                                                           ...



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