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37

If this is a topic that really interests you, I'd suggest searching for papers/reviews/opinions written by Didier Raoult. Raoult is one of the original discoverers of the massive Mimivirus and his work will lead you to some truly fascinating discussions that I couldn't hope to reproduce here. The main argument for why viruses aren't living is basically ...


22

The use of a genus-species notation gives more exact information. For example there are multiple species of chamomile: There is Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile), German chamomile (Matricaria recutita, or Chamomilla recutita) and Dyer's chamomile (Anthemis tinctora). The first two species are appraised for their medicinal properties and help to calm upset ...


21

First, a note on spelling. Both "ortholog" and "orthologue" are correct, one is the American and the other the British spelling. The same is true for homolog and paralog. On to the biology. Homology is the blanket term, both ortho- and paralogs are homologs. So, when in doubt use "homologs". However: Orthologs are homologous genes that are the result of a ...


20

Sexes (male and female) are generally defined in terms of Anisogamy, which means that there are size differences between the gametes (i.e. the reproductive cells that fuse at fertilization). The sex with smaller gametes is defined as male and the sex with larger gametes is defined as female (individuals that can produce both types of gametes are called ...


15

3. is right thing to do. You can mention in the introduction that "Campylobacter fetus, which was previously known as Vibrio fetus [Ref] ........." You should not use the old name anywhere again (also for the sake of consistency), once you have made it clear that the species was renamed, in the Introduction. I don't think there is any written convention ...


12

I agree with the answers already given, these are the reasons that viruses are not considered alive. I want to point out though that this isn't an area you find 100% agreement on; there is a decent subset of biologists who do consider viruses alive. I would say - completely on the basis of personal observation - that virologists themselves are the group most ...


11

It is only a question of definition. You can set the boundaries between living things and not living things anywhere. Some philosophers have argued that using a clear boundary between living and non-living things is not such a good solution. In nature there would rather be a continuum from a stone to a bacteria. It is true that in thinking of viruses such ...


11

There are quite some different definitions of being "alive", but a common one includes the need to have responsiveness, growth, metabolism, energy transformation, and reproduction (found from the Encyclopedia Britannica). Viruses depend on host cells to do all this, so seen alone as a virus outside a host cell, they are not alive. There's another short, but ...


11

This is now how new viral diseases are being named, possibly because one can have/carry a virus without having a disease (e.g. HIV, herpes simplex, etc.). It is not as uncommon as you think. A bit of googling will turn up reputable sites which discuss the epidemiology of Hantavirus disease, Hendra Virus Disease, Powassan Virus Disease, Lake Victoria ...


11

There is an International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, to which submissions for new organisms' names is strongly recomended. The discoverer does have some leeway within this system if there is no Latin name that well-describes this species. Your example is one of many. Chapter 31, for example, clearly states: 31.1.1. A species-group name, if a ...


11

One great example I know of is the duck-billed platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), often simply called a platypus, which shares its name with the Platypus genus of ambrosia beetle. Wikipedia gives a brief history of the taxonomy of the duck-billed platypus: The common name "platypus" is the latinisation of the Greek word πλατύπους (platupous), ...


9

Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis first shows up in pubmed in Gänzle et al. (1998). They reference Trüper and De'Clari (1997) for the name Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. The latter say: As none of them makes sense in the nominative apposition construction, we hereby correct these names to forms that are in agreement with Rule 12c as follows. ... ...


9

I don't know if these are his earliest descriptions but Darwin did describe several species of Planaria, such as Planaria vaginuloides, P. oceania, plus a new genus, Diplanaria in 1844. Darwin, C. R. 1844. Brief descriptions of several terrestrial planariæ, and of some remarkable marine species, with an account of their habits. Annals and Magazine of ...


9

The name is derived from the sugar which is bound to the base. For RNA it is Ribose (that why it is called ribonucleic acid) and for DNA it is Deoxyribose (hence the name deoxynucleic acid). The deoxyribose is missing an OH-group at positition 2 of the sugar ring, the name literally means "without oxygen". See the image below (from here) for further ...


9

The Latin names are known in all countries. The "popular" names are only popular in one or maybe two languages/countries. So, learning the Latin names, enables you to communicate international more easily.


8

Both orthologs and paralogs are types of homologs, that is, they denote genes that derive from the same ancestral sequence. Orthologs are corresponding genes in different lineages and are a result of speciation, whereas paralogs result from a gene duplication. This often has important implications: while orthologs often fulfill the same role, paralogs tend ...


8

The term "polymorphism" itself is more generally defined as "the quality or state of existing in or assuming different forms" (Merriam-Webster dictionary). So I guess semantically, it would be correct to say that there is polymorphism in a gene that can occur in different allelic variants, or polymorphism in phenotype because of variant traits (such as ...


8

I don't have a definitive answer, but I suspect Hymenoptera is "just a name," albeit a name that has lasted through the phylogenetic nomenclature revolution. Hymenoptera was erected by Linnaeus in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae (1758). The description of Hymenoptera (membrane wing; p. 553 [hope your Latin is better than mine]) follows that of ...


8

Those describe the genotype of an animal (or plant, virus etc.). The nomenclature can be very varied and domain-specific, but for those two examples: $dt^{sz}$ is a Syrian golden hamster model with a spontaneous mutation (i.e. occurred during breeding, without specific human intervention) which gives predisposition to seizures. They are described in this ...


8

It generally won't be more helpful. Not only will the names be different in different countries, there may be different types of the same species with different properties, or even different species with the same common name. If you have an allergy to something like coriander, being able to read the label and see what contains actual coriander and what ...


7

I've discovered that searching for Darwin on the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) appears to prioritise in its search results those species named by Darwin rather than for him. The first page of results includes many barnacle species (as noted by 3cat). The first five species are: Amphibalanus amphitrite (Striped Barnacle) Megabalanus coccopoma (Titan Acorn ...


7

All breeds of dogs are members of the same (sub) species: Canis lupus familiaris. "Breeds" of dogs are not scientific designations but are collections of traits recognized as unique by different breeding organizations. As such, certain breeds are recognized as unique in some organizations do not exist in others (see here for examples).


7

All the different breeds of dogs - from Irish setters to greyhounds - are all part of the same species, canis lupus familiaris. The common, domesticated dog is actually a subspecies of the grey wolf. The different breeds do have different genetic characteristics (just as humans have, say, different eye or hair colors), but they're a all one and the same. The ...


7

Medicine is not my field, but I want to point out two things: The former words have latin roots, and historically latin was the international language of science. Therefore, nomenclature in different scientific fields are often based on latin. The former words describe tissues and the related functions/processes (e.g. renal = kidney + related tissues + ...


6

It seems like your question might contain two separate and linked issues, both of which are perhaps equally confusing and equally interesting. They're both really discussion questions in a sense, but they've also both been dealt with in the literature in thoughtful ways, so here's a stab at an "answer". Issue One: how does your species concept deal with ...


6

I went to the Yeastbank website at Weihenstephan for some info. The keyword here is "Stamm," which is German for stem, clade, clan, or strain. So, I would take this to mean that the 34/70 is an isolate (#70) of strain 34. Two of 34/70's strengths, according to the link above are it makes clean beer and gives a pleasant taste profile due to its low yeast-like ...


6

Apparently I asked too soon. Summarizing my recent findings, I conclude that adrenaline is the better term. To be more explicit, here is why: The US National Library of Medicine recommends “epinephrine”, this is however mainly due to historical reasons (adrenaline used to be a trademark name in the USA). This quite comprehensive paper on the issue ...


6

Epinephrine and norepinephrine is used in the US mainly. This is where the term epi-pen comes from. Everywhere else we tend to use Adrenaline and noradrenaline. Epinephrine is typically only used in literature arising from the US or US English speaking countries. In most countries they use adrenaline and also include Epinephrine so our American cousins don't ...


6

The correct latin nomenclature is Sander vitreus, with the genus capitalized and the species name in lowercase. This is known as binomial nomenclature. Carl Linnaeus chose to use a two-word naming system [...] binomial nomenclature scheme, using only the genus name and the specific name or epithet which together form the whole name of the species. For ...


6

There are different unrelated plants called "pepper" in English. Black pepper (species of the Piper genus), as indicated by Chris, is not related to tomato and doesn't "look alike". I guess the OP meant actually a different plant (Capsicum genus), to which the common bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) belongs. This one is similar to tomato and they both belong ...



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