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Rover Eye's answer addresses the main part. I'll try to address the "efficiency" part, as far as I understand your assumption. The simple answer is that there is no "efficiency" in metabolism. If you eat 1 calorie worth of protein, your body uses up or stores 1 calorie. Ditto for 1 calorie worth of fat or carbohydrate. The fact that not 100% of the food's ...


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Cellular metabolism describes the process by which the products of digestion (amino acids, fat derivatives and the hexoses/ monosaccharides fructose, galactose and glucose) are chemically modified to yield usable energy. They differ in term of which pathway they undergo during metabolism, before becoming a part of the citric acid (TCA) cycle. You ...


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The NIH RDA for vitamin B12 is 2-3µg/day. Cyanocobalamin has an $M_r$ of 1355, of which 26, or less than 2% ($CN^-$) is cyanide. Since the Minimal Risk Level for cyanide is 50µg/kg/day, your studies are correct in that 1000x the RDA of vitamin B12 in the form of cyanocobalamin is not lethal, and furthermore is expected to not cause any negative effects ...


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Potassium cyanide is added to the cobalamins produced by bacteria to give rise to cyanocobalamin. CN is strongly bonded to Co and will not easily dissociate, thereby making this form of B12 inactive. Therefore, it has been argued that cyanocobalamin is not a good vitamin supplement and other variants such as hydroxycobalamin or methylcobalamin should be ...



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