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As part of your question, you ask if other animals can create sound without continuous airflow. Many insects (e.g. cicadas and moths) do exactly this by using tymbals. A tymbal/timbal is an external membrane organ that is controlled by muscles or wing movements, that cause the membrane to flip back and forth, creating clicks or other sounds. So in many ways ...


4

Here is a list of woodwind instruments. Do you know of any (non-open) reed instrument that produces a note without anyone blowing air through them? Imagine a clarinet being played on someone's lap pouring out a melody. That would be very, very remarkable indeed. Our ability to produce sound from our throats is in theory like a reed instrument in music. ...


2

As dd3 said the density of mechanoreceptors dictates skin sensitivity to touch (also look at penfield map. It is a nice illustration of how different senses are mapped to the brain and to what extent each region is sensitive to stimulus). Skin thickness is also different in different regions. This article says that Dikkopf1 (a Wnt pathway antagonist) ...


1

The situation is just as you'd imagine. In an immunocompetant recipient, a host-versus-graft reaction occurs. This is called transplant rejection. Single episodes (acute rejection) are easy to treat and rarely lead to organ failure. Chronic rejection is the leading cause of organ transplant failure. The organ slowly loses its function and symptoms start to ...



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