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32

Birds are both flying dinosaurs and flying reptiles. Yes, that's potentially confusing. To understand the apparent contradiction, you have to understand how modern classification of organisms works (phylogenetic systematics). Under the old (Linnean) classification system, Reptilia (reptiles) was an order and Aves (birds) was a separate order. Phylogenetic ...


14

In addition to kmm's excellent answer, I'd like to present the xkcd point of view.


11

Various features of brain,skull and beak anatomy help to achieve protection. A paper was published in PLoSOne in 2011 on this very topic: Why do woodpeckers resist head impact injury: a biomechanical investigation There is also a very readable summary on the BBC website. I advise that you read the whole article, but here is a quotation which lists the ...


6

It's the same stuff that makes up most sea shells, calcium carbonate, $CaCO_3$. Incidentally, this explains why egg shells dissolve in vinegar (acetic acid which, since it is an acid, provides the Hydrogen ions in the reaction below): $CaCO_3+ 2H^+ -> Ca^{2+} + H_2O +CO_2$ This simple reaction (which is what would happen in your stomach as well) ...


6

This is a pond heron or paddy bird. The de-facto source for identifying Indian birds is Birds of the Indian Subcontinent by Richard Grimmett, Carol Inskipp and Tim Inskipp. The book is remarkably complete and contains the vast majority of species found in the Indian Subcontinent.


6

I'm not an expert, but I think that you have to be specific about the flying animals to which you are referring. Pterosaurs are not classed as dinosaurs, whereas modern birds are descended from theropod dinosaurs which is where feathers appeared.


6

Gibson (2006) identified three characteristics that help woodpeckers avoid brain injury: their small size, which reduces the stress on the brain for a given acceleration the short duration of the impact, which increases the tolerable acceleration the orientation of the brain within the skull, which increases the area of contact between the ...


5

I bet you'll be interested about the concept monophyly. Any human-made group of species (or taxon) like birds dinosaurs, primate, bacteria, angiosperm, reptiles, … are either monophyletic, polyphyletic or paraphyletic. This picture explain the concept When the taxon is monophyletic it is called a clade. Monophyletic taxon are those groups of species that ...


5

For me it looks like a Malayan Night Heron, Gorsachius melanolophus. They seems to be common in this part of Asia, see the distribution. It looks strange because he probably get scared.


5

It's a Black Crowned Night Heron, Nycticorax nycticorax, in my opinion - you can read more about it here. Key to it's identification is the shape of the body and bill, it's characteristic of species from the heron family such as the green heron. The range is right and the red eye is a good clue too.


4

As per Wikipedia it is listed as endangered having been downgraded from critically endangered due to the spread in sightings over the years over a large area. Sightings have been rare with a reported sighting on 12th April 2005 and a dead specimen found in 2006 The first photos and a 17 second video of the bird was taken by a wildlife photographer John Young ...


4

All animals that develop in this way, whether they are oviparous (developing in an egg) or viviparous (developing inside their mother, or live-birth). From Wild Birds Unlimited: All mammals have navels or belly buttons where the umbilical cord distributes nutrients between a mother and her fetus. After birth, the umbilical cord is cut and a scar ...


3

In short; yes. It depends on the breed (not all lay up to 1 egg/day), the age of the bird and on nutrition. High yielding breeds of chicken are e.g. dependent on supplements of calcium to be able to produce new shells rapidly (e.g. in the form of ground-up shells). Some information on the nutrient requirements of chicken can be found at Feeding the Laying ...


1

Your logic seems fine to me.. Option B: The hatching at an advanced stage is critical for imprinting. This is wrong because Konrad Lorenz (who rediscovered imprinting) demonstrated how incubator-hatched geese would imprint on the first suitable moving stimulus they saw within what he called a "critical period" between 13–16 hours shortly after ...


1

From the article titled "Evidence of mutualistic synzoochory between cryptogams and hummingbirds", the specific advantage for the hummingbird is that it gets good nest building material through the selection of cryptograms. The cryptograms though have its seeds dispersed over large distances by birds which is a process called synzoochory.


1

Birds have to learn their song patterns. They are able to chirp, but the songs with "meaning" are learned from their parents or whatever they learned to be their "parent". Here is a paper that related bird song learning to human learning (of speech, for example). Birds brought up by parents from another species learned to sing their songs. There are many ...


1

This is at least doing some confusion, probably also harm. A lot of wildlife conservatoinists warn about using smartphone apps which replay bird songs as they are confusing the animals, an example is the Dorset Wildlifetrust. This phenomenon has even be analyzed scientifically, and the results show that birds are irritated. Territorial birds seem to be ...


1

Wild ducklings, like these baby Mallard ducks, are in fact typically only partly yellow: Photo by TheBrockenInaGlory via Wikimedia Commons, used under the CC-By-SA 3.0 license. While I'm no expert, I would guess that the mottled yellow-brown coloring of the juveniles is, at least partially, protective coloration, just like the somewhat similar pattern on ...



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