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6

It's the same stuff that makes up most sea shells, calcium carbonate, $CaCO_3$. Incidentally, this explains why egg shells dissolve in vinegar (acetic acid which, since it is an acid, provides the Hydrogen ions in the reaction below): $CaCO_3+ 2H^+ -> Ca^{2+} + H_2O +CO_2$ This simple reaction (which is what would happen in your stomach as well) ...


5

I bet you'll be interested about the concept monophyly. Any human-made group of species (or taxon) like birds dinosaurs, primate, bacteria, angiosperm, reptiles, … are either monophyletic, polyphyletic or paraphyletic. This picture explain the concept When the taxon is monophyletic it is called a clade. Monophyletic taxon are those groups of species that ...


5

This is a pond heron or paddy bird. The de-facto source for identifying Indian birds is Birds of the Indian Subcontinent by Richard Grimmett, Carol Inskipp and Tim Inskipp. The book is remarkably complete and contains the vast majority of species found in the Indian Subcontinent.


5

There is a very plausible explanation here. Basically, it explains that meat colour is due to the protein myoglobin (a haem-containing protein related to haemoglobin). There are two types of skeletal muscle: fast-twitch and slow-twitch (Wikipedia). Slow-twitch muscle is red muscle because it contains lots of myoglobin. Fast-twitch muscle is white muscle, ...


5

You would be amazed at the vocal abilities of the lyrebird. A car alarm is easy for them; they can mimic much more complicated sounds. Here's a snippet from a David Attenborough BBC documentary on YouTube (which includes the car alarm example, among others). They are so skilled, it's hard not to think this video is fake.


3

In short; yes. It depends on the breed (not all lay up to 1 egg/day), the age of the bird and on nutrition. High yielding breeds of chicken are e.g. dependent on supplements of calcium to be able to produce new shells rapidly (e.g. in the form of ground-up shells). Some information on the nutrient requirements of chicken can be found at Feeding the Laying ...


3

I am not an ornithologist, but using identify.whatbird.com and a simple google search, this appears to be a Muscovy Duck. Try a google image search for yourself! Some of the birds pictured have more ostentatiously red or larger caruncles, but some look very similar to the birds you photographed. For example: ...


1

Birds have to learn their song patterns. They are able to chirp, but the songs with "meaning" are learned from their parents or whatever they learned to be their "parent". Here is a paper that related bird song learning to human learning (of speech, for example). Birds brought up by parents from another species learned to sing their songs. There are many ...


1

This is at least doing some confusion, probably also harm. A lot of wildlife conservatoinists warn about using smartphone apps which replay bird songs as they are confusing the animals, an example is the Dorset Wildlifetrust. This phenomenon has even be analyzed scientifically, and the results show that birds are irritated. Territorial birds seem to be ...


1

Wild ducklings, like these baby Mallard ducks, are in fact typically only partly yellow: Photo by TheBrockenInaGlory via Wikimedia Commons, used under the CC-By-SA 3.0 license. While I'm no expert, I would guess that the mottled yellow-brown coloring of the juveniles is, at least partially, protective coloration, just like the somewhat similar pattern on ...


1

In general, animal communication contains both "cultural" aspects and genetic components. As you suggest, the cultural aspects vary more across geographies and times. The genetic components might vary as well, with genetic differences among different populations, but you'd expect them to be more conservative than the cultural aspects. To make the matter ...



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