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Gibson (2006) identified three characteristics that help woodpeckers avoid brain injury: their small size, which reduces the stress on the brain for a given acceleration the short duration of the impact, which increases the tolerable acceleration the orientation of the brain within the skull, which increases the area of contact between the ...


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Various features of brain,skull and beak anatomy help to achieve protection. A paper was published in PLoSOne in 2011 on this very topic: Why do woodpeckers resist head impact injury: a biomechanical investigation There is also a very readable summary on the BBC website. I advise that you read the whole article, but here is a quotation which lists the ...


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Your logic seems fine to me.. Option B: The hatching at an advanced stage is critical for imprinting. This is wrong because Konrad Lorenz (who rediscovered imprinting) demonstrated how incubator-hatched geese would imprint on the first suitable moving stimulus they saw within what he called a "critical period" between 13–16 hours shortly after ...



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