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6

For question 1 it's just a biochemical response from thermoreceptor nerves in the skin, temperatures that are likely to cause lasting damage from prolonged exposure cause a neurological response - in this case it's pain. In address to question 2 it is most likely down to the physiological response of vasoconstriction. When the body is cold the body ...


6

Pain is subjective Pain is a subjective experience; you cannot even tell with certainty how much pain your fellow human is experiencing, which is why we ask people; they then can tell us. Pain relief (both physical and emotional) is a significant part of medicine, yet we still have "pain scales" for self-reported pain, one of the more common ones being the ...


5

I don't want to comment about the nature of electric signals in neurons (as I know only little about physiology and neurophysiology). But here is a short answer that may already help you. Neuronal electric signals are called action potential. If you register the voltage at a given location on the axon of a neuron through time you will see something like ...


4

I very much doubt it. You may however die from whatever's causing the pain. The reason you feel pain is so you stop doing whatever is causing the pain. Hence someone knows not to touch a hot fire because it is painful. But the pain itself is not actually the danger - it's the fire burning away skin. So pain is actually a good thing, a survival mechanism. So ...


3

I think your getting confused. Your assuming that it's actually the heat or cold that creates the feelings of pain. I was very surprised. cold is just atoms moving slower. Pain is a warning mechanism, stop doing that or you'll hurt yourself. It is not caused by the atoms in your nerves moving faster or slower in response to heat. Your nerves are ...


3

Cortisol produced from the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex is directly caused by stress. According to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cortisol Cortisol stimulates gastric-acid secretion. Cortisol's only direct effect on the hydrogen ion excretion of the kidneys is to stimulate the excretion of ammonium ions by deactivating the renal glutaminase ...


3

Inflamed sinuses are often associated with some kind of illness or irritant such as flu, the common cold, or hay-fever. As an example the cold causes sinus pain and inflammation because the virus is attacking/located in the nasal passages which causes swelling in the mucus membrane (the mucus membrane lines the sinus cavities). The swelling, along with ...


3

When the pain receptors are fully loaded then it's not possible to excite these receptor greater. However the perception of pain has a large psychological component and is not well understood. Your brain could modulate your perception of pain naturally or due to illness.


3

I answered the other question and it is similar. However, this one is different enough that I will give a slightly more simple explanation. Nerves transmit messages using electrical current, more specifically the flow of sodium and potassium. Just remember that it's electricity. When you have any sort of cut or damage, your body recruits white blood cells ...


3

It doesn't matter if its hand or any other human body organ, cold would hurt, the reason being that we humans being warm blooded animal require an optimal temperature-pressure balance to be maintained for our nervous system to work in its natural order. So when we have, in your case, cold hands its like a thermal shock to our hand as the above mentioned ...


3

Typically nerve compression or a "pinched" nerve is due to inflammation in the tissue through which a nerve passes. The gap is already quite narrow so any inflammation is quite potent. Inflammation causes you to feel things as more painful (hyperalgesia). In a similar way to how of you burn your hand then poke it, it hurts, when cells are damaged the ...


2

Well nerve crossing or misinterpretation of nerve signal by the brain does not happen all the time. In case it happens frequently then I guess it would be Multiple Sclerosis or might be Fibromyalgia syndrome. In multiple sclerosis, the Myelin sheath surrounding neuron when gets damaged causes certain problem with nerve signal transmission to the brain. But ...


2

It has to do with the way that body parts are more rigid when it is cold. This makes them less flexible and more prone to superficial injury....even without frost nip setting in. In the event that actual frost nip set in, this would be even more sensitive, as you have tiny crystals beginning to form in your cells, like little shards of glass......and, ...


2

As AndroidPenguin described the nociceptive pathways are activated by inflammation or noxious chemicals. Sometimes pain can arise independent of active nociceptive pathways. Most evident in cases of Neuralgia and perhaps in case of Pseudoneuromas. In certain cases the injured nerve causes disinhibition of the pain pathways arising from the dorsal horn of ...


2

Check out the muscle relaxant article on Wikipedia, it's pretty straight forward. In short, there are two main types: Neuromuscular blockers, than act at the junction between the neuron and the muscle; and spasmolytics/antispasmodics, which (mainly) act on the central nervous system to reduce excitation or increase inhibition. Most of the ones I've heard ...


2

This is of course a controversial topic with there being supporters for both methods of slaughter. First of all, The research paper that you have mentioned is a highly cited one and it is the foremost study that supporters of exanguination use to support their method of slaughter. However, the author himself (Wilhelm Schulze) has stated and I quote ...


2

As dd3 said the density of mechanoreceptors dictates skin sensitivity to touch (also look at penfield map. It is a nice illustration of how different senses are mapped to the brain and to what extent each region is sensitive to stimulus). Skin thickness is also different in different regions. This article says that Dikkopf1 (a Wnt pathway antagonist) ...


2

I believe every living organism (even single cell ones) experience pain somehow, because it is important to stay alive. The scientific answer depends on how you define pain... Related articles: Evidence suggests that some, if not all, invertebrates have the potential to suffer through current practices that do not take into consideration that ...


2

The biological part of the answer to your question depends on the thing causing the pain. Burning for example, a large burn can be very life threatening biologically but small burns are not as harmful comparatively. But the psychological harm they would cause is phenomenal. This is because large burns open up the body to infections, dehydration and a lot of ...


2

In addition to what Spinoral has said, and in response to your comment above, I will add a bit more about the mechanisms. Essentially, in some form or another it's receptive fields all the way up. A brief outline of the anatomy: The cells from the spinal cord are pseudounipolar and have their cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglia in the spinal cord. The ...


2

The accuracy of sensation is actually quite variable depending on the region of our body. Highly innervated areas such as our fingers have a higher degree of accuracy than sparsely innervated areas such as our legs. There is a simple experiment you can do to illustrate this. Close your eyes and then get a friend to lightly and slowly run their finger from ...


2

Reverse signals (dendrite -> axon) do occur in neurons, and are called back propagating action potentials (bAPs). However, whatever role bAPs play in the nervous system at large is subtle/small enough that we don't really understand them at all. In any case, as @luigi points out, pinched nerves don't have anything to do with bAPs. The reason why a pinch in ...


2

Since the action potential question has already been answered, I will attempt to answer I'm sure this differs based on genetics and all sorts of other factors, but what are the general power ratings for the central nervous system? How much Watts/Volts/Amps travel with these signals? Are there standard ranges? You are right in that there is a large ...


1

I think it's best to break this question up in to two parts: What mutations account for red hair and fair skin in humans How might these same mutations affect pain sensation MC1R variants & red hair The MC1R gene encodes a transmembrane receptor protein (belonging to a very common family of receptors), called melanocortin 1 receptor. It also has ...


1

A quick search through the Internet, as well as any textbook, will reveal that the lining of the uterus (endometrium) created thickened during every menstruation cycle is rich in nutrients, and requires a constant blood supply, in order to accommodate a fetus. Therefore, maintaining the lining would be more costly to the body than rebuilding it every month; ...


1

The key player you are lacking is the thalamus, which integrates a lot of stimuli, and pre-processes them before sending them to the cortex


1

The first layer of sensory integration from neural interconnection lies in the spinal dorsal horns (for somatosensory stimuli), and the spinal anterolateral system (for painful stimuli). It resembles option #2 much more than option #1. Addenda: Since you are asking a lot about neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, I suggest those 2 beginner books: ...


1

Pins-and-needles (PAN) sensation and pain stem from the same nerves. The pathophysiologic process is different, though. PAN is characteristic of nerve lesion, and is therefore a pathologic reaction. Pain is a physiologic reaction to a stimulus perceived as ominous. Pathophysiologically speaking, the PAN sensation is a distortion in somatosensory stimulus ...


1

I disagree with some of these statements. Dental cavities are injuries and are treated like injuries warrent. Unlike maybe trauma or cancer, dental cavities are a injury caused by decay of the enamel (the protective hard shell of the tooth). The decay is a result of the proliferation of bacteria, streptococcus mutants which releases an acid and breaks down ...


1

Yes a range of pain exists. This can be seen probably in your friends who all probably have a completely different threshold for pain. When doctors ask patients to rate their pain it's usually to establish a baseline so after treatment we can see if there's a decrease. The different thresholds have so many factors from general health to receptors to brain ...



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