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We work a bit with pain and memory. My understanding is that you can measure what in behavioral field is called "pain" by detecting aversive response of an animal. That is there is always something unpleasant and attractive in nature. Only difference is that pungent smell will not kill subject. Evolution taught animals that bad smells and loud sounds might ...


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Pain is subjective Pain is a subjective experience; you cannot even tell with certainty how much pain your fellow human is experiencing, which is why we ask people; they then can tell us. Pain relief (both physical and emotional) is a significant part of medicine, yet we still have "pain scales" for self-reported pain, one of the more common ones being the ...


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I think it's best to break this question up in to two parts: What mutations account for red hair and fair skin in humans How might these same mutations affect pain sensation MC1R variants & red hair The MC1R gene encodes a transmembrane receptor protein (belonging to a very common family of receptors), called melanocortin 1 receptor. It also has ...


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One mechanism through which low temperatures cause pain is through vasoconstriction. Cold environment causes constriction of blood vessels in the periphery. This will cause decreased blood flow and the muscles will cramp due to lack of oxygen. The cramping is due to the accumulation of lactic acid (due to activation of anaerobic pathways of metabolism) and ...


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I think your getting confused. Your assuming that it's actually the heat or cold that creates the feelings of pain. I was very surprised. cold is just atoms moving slower. Pain is a warning mechanism, stop doing that or you'll hurt yourself. It is not caused by the atoms in your nerves moving faster or slower in response to heat. Your nerves are ...


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A quick search through the Internet, as well as any textbook, will reveal that the lining of the uterus (endometrium) created thickened during every menstruation cycle is rich in nutrients, and requires a constant blood supply, in order to accommodate a fetus. Therefore, maintaining the lining would be more costly to the body than rebuilding it every month; ...



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