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Diabetes mellitus is divided into four type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes, and specific type of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is commonly called as Juvenile diabetes or Brittle diabetes. It is also called as "Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)". For our bad-luck the causes of Type 1 diabetes remains obscure, and scientists believes its mostly related ...


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Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation is by far my favorite article at the moment explaining cancer in-depth. I'd recommend reading through it. The cells replicate themselves, without regard for normal cellular restriction, due to a number of mutations that accumulate: So our cancer cells are evading apoptosis. P53 might be knocked down, so cell cycle ...


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Mostly because it is in almost constant contact with aerosols from the outside world (with regard, of course, to a thin layer of mucus), therefore any pathogens they might contain. You also have to remember what separates an airborne pathogen from any other pathogens- infection location. A pathogen is airborne when it infects and irritates the throat or ...


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"However if the sperm has X chromosome the embryo will survive to have the 46 XX karyotype and will start to grow as molar pregnancy." Complete molar pregnancy is diploid, and there is no fetal tissue identifiable. It is a disease of the placenta, a uterine tumor (cancerous in some cases, non-cancerous in others); fetuses do not develop from such ...


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There is viral DNA within our genomes. Embedded in the genomes of all vertebrates are the proviral remnants of previous retroviral infections. It is possible that some have conferred biological benefits. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) represent the proviral phase of exogenous retroviruses that have integrated into the germ line of their host. They ...


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Overdiagnosis and overtreatment are intertwined. There is debate about how to best describe the problem, but narrowly defined, overdiagnosis occurs when increasingly sensitive tests - or changing definitions - identify abnormalities that are minor, non-progressive, or likely to resolve on their own, and that, if left untreated, will not cause symptoms or ...


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Screening is the process of testing the population enmasse to check for the presence of risk factors for a disease or to detect the early form of a disease. Usually the tests that are used in screening are not highly effective in excluding people who do not have the disease (low negative predictive value). Instead the goal of screening is to identify as ...


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Fundamentally, there’s no reason why cancers wouldn’t be communicable. Tumours consist of abnormally multiplying cells which have switched off their response to repressive stimuli from other cells, which would otherwise cause them to stop growing (plus a few other properties which have first been collectively described in the seminal paper The hallmarks of ...


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Any malfunctioning in the body is the result of either external pathogens, environmental changes or it can be manifested by the body itself. Based on which we can call it a disease or a disorder. Some can be viewed with the help of its underlying symptoms. Fever is a natural response of the human body to any kind of imbalance, for example, temperature ...


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I know pretty much nothing in medicine! Fever is an abnormally high body temperature. Fever is a symptom and not a disease per se. Different medical conditions (incl. various infectious diseases) causes a patient to have fever. Note that fever might be in some/most situations an adaptive response to a disease. In other words, for infectious disease causing ...


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A cancer is a group of cells that (because of several specific mutations) start to duplicate abnormally. This group of cancerous cells are the own cells of the sick patient. A cancer is not a pathogen (but see below) that infect hosts and get transmitted from one host to another. It is more correct to picture a cancer as an internal mistake of the body ...


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The definition of closed and open wounds is variable. In histopathological terms (i.e. looking under a microscope) it is usually defined that a wound where the dermis is affected is open. In this case an abrasion is an open wound. This puts it in the same class as cuts (incisional/lacerations), tears and punctures. Closed wounds on the other hand are when ...



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