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This answer is a reply to the question asked in the comment of my answer given on 13th July 2016. The comment was, " Nice answer, I gather that bacteria would enter more easily, what about viruses?" In my answer on 13th July 2016, I used the term "microorganisms" - this includes both bacteria and viruses. So the answer provided there can also be applied to ...


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Our epidermis is the first line defence against natural infections; it is also a part of the innate immune system. This is due to it contains a layer of dead cells that separates the living cells of the deeper layers of epidermis and dermis from the environment. This part of the epidermis is avascular and so pathogens can not easily enter into the ...


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The dermis provides some protection, and if it is removed the danger of deep tissue infection becomes extremely high. However, the epidermis provides an additional and important layer of antimicrobial protection. That is why first and second degree burns, opened blisters, and scrapes should be kept clean and isolated from the environment with bandages, and ...


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(This answer is still a work in progress, but I'll work more on it eventually...) It's not terribly controversial to say that infected hosts may be more likely to be eaten by predators. However, at least one author (Smith Trail et al 1980; full reference below) has suggested that this could be adaptive; in some sitautions there could be a net gain to ...


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The host/parasite relationship is normally very specific: because there are a lot of molecules that have to bind each other for the parasite to complete its cycle, a parasite is not capable of invading any given organism; the same way, a host is not invaded by any given parasite. That being said, you have to keep in mind that mosquitoes are also hosts (...



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