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Gage suffered a massive injury to the frontal lobes due to his accident in 1848 (Fig.1). Recent modeling work has shown that, contrary to popular belief, the injury was not bilateral. Instead, it was proven to have been confined to the left-lateral frontal lobe (Ratiu et al, 2004). Fig.1. Original drawing of the wound sustained by Gage (left). Source: ...


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Mordake was a conjoined twin fused at the head (Fig. 1). Twins conjoined at the heads are rare, occurring only once in every 2.5 million live births. Moreover, in Mordake's case it was a parasitic twin head with an undeveloped body that was fused with his own head. This condition is referred to as craniopagus parasiticus, or ├ępicome / epicomus. Craniopagus ...


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Direct transmission is through direct contact with the infected person with no intermediary or vector. The Ebola virus and AIDs virus are examples. Indirect would be malaria spread through mosquitos, plague via rats, etc. The common cold spread through droplets in the air could seem indirect, but because of the proximity required, the CDC website lists it ...


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Some bacteria produce toxins when alive. The infamous Clostridium botulinum produces botulinum, a very powerful toxin that can cause total body paralysis in very small amounts. C. botulinum cannot survive the acids in the stomach, but the toxin and the spores can pass through and still affect (kill) you. This is an example of a bacteria that you cannot get ...


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Frequency of tremor typically remains constant for the person. Levadopa (sinemet) does not change the frequency. Typically the tremor frequency will be in the range from 3Hz to 7Hz. There is a common phrase when dealing with PWP (Person With Parkinson's Disease). If you have seen one PWP, you have seen one PWP. Currently I am part of a study by the ...



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