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40

Salt water may have anti-septic properties due to the effect it has on water potential. Pure water has a water potential (Ψ) of zero. A concentrated salt solution has a lower (more-negative) water potential. The water potential of the salt solution is likely to be more negative than that of the pathogen's cytoplasm; the salt solution is therefore referred ...


32

This information is all strictly for Entonox - a brand of analgesic gas comprising 50% Oxygen (O2) and 50% Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Laughing Gas. This mixture is known as 'Gas and Air' and is in very common use. The active ingredient in Entonox is of course the nitrous oxide, so the discussion of the mechanism below refers solely to the N2O as you asked for. ...


21

There are several issues here: 1) Any mucous membrane is a specialized tissue for absorption. Mucous membranes are indeed not so good for passive diffusion, that makes them absolutely perfect tools for active absorption of certain substances, almost independently from the membrane type. To provide some examples: many drugs like cocaine are inhaled and ...


17

No There are several reasons why this might not be true, as Alexander has discussed. An antibiotic often has a molecular target that isn't present in all bacteria, it's extremely hard to get antibiotics to certain parts of your body, and some bacteria will be defended against a antibiotic attack by biofilms, resistance mechanisms, and sheer statistical ...


15

Bacteria have a mesh-like structure surrounding their plasma membrane called a cell wall. The cell wall is made up of peptidoglycan polymers that form a rigid crystalline structure that helps protect the osmotic pressure of the bacterial cytoplasm. Penicillin and other β-lactams work by inhibiting the final step of peptidoglycan synthesis, which ...


15

Just a quick answer: No, there is no way to kill all bacteria in your body once they are there. The only way to keep a person sterile is to prevent any bacteria entering the guts during and all time after the birth. Look for gnotobiology and gnotobionts to learn more about these organisms (including humans). Here are some reasons why: Most antibiotics ...


14

It would also be logical to note that a chewed tablet increases its surface-area-to-volume ratio for absorption relative to an intact tablet, for any absorptive tissue.


13

IDPs are indeed attractive drug targets and there are ongoing efforts to develop drug molecules that block interactions between a disordered and a structured protein. According to this relatively recent paper, however, these efforts have not brought a drug on the market, yet. A few promising studies have shown drug-like molecules that inhibit ...


13

The situation is definitely an extremely complex one, and you should probably forget about having an exact equation to define it. When talking about the effects of a substance on the organism there are several factors to take into account. These are generally put together under the term pharmacodynamics. Some of the factor to take into account are: The ...


11

It's worth noting that earlier this month a large body of resveratrol research was retracted: The University of Connecticut, in what clearly seems like an attempt to get ahead of damaging news, has announced an “extensive” investigation into research misconduct involving one of its scientists, Dipak K. Das. According to a press release, the ...


10

In a nutshell: in order to pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) the substance has to mimick soee properties of the substances that are allowed to pass through. There are different types of "transporters" -- integral proteins going through the cell membranes and accounting for the active transport of the substances they can actively bind to. Smaller ...


9

The WHO has their own methodology, the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC, thank you commenter) classification system, for organizing such data (its impetus is comparing results between studies). Also, if you have $900 sitting around, you can get a subscription for the United States Pharmacopeia. I'm not sure if that can be spread across multiple ...


9

I have been working on this problem for quite some time now and believe me getting specific binding is a real issue with IDRs. Also, since these regions dont form core structure of the protein, the residues are less conserved (more prone to mutations). So in case of evolving drug-resistance contributing proteins this become a bottleneck. I have done some ...


9

Paracetamol is a pain killer, it does not treat the cause of your illness, it only alleviates the symptoms. From its wikipedia page: Paracetamol [...], chemically named N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, is a widely used over-the-counter analgesic (pain reliever) and antipyretic (fever reducer). So, paracetamol does not make you better. Your immune system ...


9

Short answer Various inhalants, most notably organic solvents including those used in paint and glue suppress appetite. Background From the Division of Alcohol and Drug Abuse I learned the following: Initial effects [of various inhalants] include nausea [...], and a loss of appetite. And the Humanitarian Irin News reports the following on Nepali ...


8

If you search clinicaltrials.gov (maintained by the NIH) for "resveratrol", you'll find 44 clinical trials, many of them ongoing or not yet started. A recent review by Smoliga JM et al states in the abstract: "Although the supporting research in laboratory models is quite substantial, only recently data has emerged to describe the effects of resveratrol ...


8

Perhaps the question may also be phrased, "Why is it common for plants to produce chemicals that possess pharmacological or toxicological effects in man and animals?", and to that question it is often reasoned that plants, being sessile and otherwise defenceless food sources for predators, produce compounds that affect the physiology of animals in such a way ...


8

Risperidone prevents dopamine from acting on the pituitary gland by blocking dopamine type 2 receptors. One of dopamine's effects on the pituitary is to suppress prolactin production. In patients taking risperidone, prolactin production thus increases and prolactin levels in the body are higher than normal. In younger males, this can result in abnormal ...


7

I can't speak to the causes of hypotension, but you are indeed correct, caffeine is a stimulant. As a stimulant, there is a well documented acute period of hypertension that lasts for up to 4 hours. Interestingly, there is no causal link established between caffiene consumption and chronic hypertension leading to cardiovascular disease (see here and here). ...


7

The goal of the vaccine is to provoke an immune answer, therefore some degree of inflammation is expected in order for the vaccine to work. Since you get the shot intramuscularily, intradermally or subcutaneously, it is local, and the inflammation does not spread. The reason why your whole arm seems to hurt (rather than the place where the vaccine was ...


7

I agree with @inf3rno: caffeine is a stimulant that acts on the brain and various other parts of the body (Snyder et al., 1981) and I wish to elaborate on its psychopharmacology. Caffeine's effects in the brain are mediated through adenosine A1 and A2 receptors (Daly et al., 1983). This results in a variety of actions (Fredholm et al., 1999). Most notably, ...


7

The methodology behind homeopathy is scientific nonsense. If you dilute anything a billion times, it will have no chemical effect, not even if you shake it all the while. So no, homeopathy does nothing for cancer, or any medical condition at all. Of course plants can have active compounds in them, once scientists have identified those compounds, they can ...


6

Acetylsalicylate deacetylase is the enzyme responsible for this reaction. Precisely, the present investigation reveals that the hydrolysis of aspirin in liver, kidney and probably other tissues of rats is catalyzed by two highly substrate specific microsomal esterases, ASA esterase I and II active at acidic and slightly alkaline pH, respectively. ...


6

Methyl cellulose is a dry binder. It is used to make a pill with a small mass of active ingredient and as much binder as required to make the pill a manageable size. The following properties make methyl cellulose a good dry binder: inexpensive non-allergic vegetarian soluble in cold water non-digestable nontoxic Most of this information is from the ...


6

Apparently I asked too soon. Summarizing my recent findings, I conclude that adrenaline is the better term. To be more explicit, here is why: The US National Library of Medicine recommends “epinephrine”, this is however mainly due to historical reasons (adrenaline used to be a trademark name in the USA). This quite comprehensive paper on the issue ...


6

Epinephrine and norepinephrine is used in the US mainly. This is where the term epi-pen comes from. Everywhere else we tend to use Adrenaline and noradrenaline. Epinephrine is typically only used in literature arising from the US or US English speaking countries. In most countries they use adrenaline and also include Epinephrine so our American cousins don't ...


6

In extreme doses, caffeine can - like almost any substance - cause death. Wikipedia has this to say on the subject: Extreme overdose can result in death.[59][60] The median lethal dose (LD50) given orally is 192 milligrams per kilogram in rats. The LD50 of caffeine in humans is dependent on individual sensitivity, but is estimated to be about 150 ...


6

Yes, there are a few. Mostly they are designed in combination with X-ray crystallography of the target which should be inhibited. Then molecules are designed which fit specifically into these targets. The oldest example I could find is Dorzolamide which acts as a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. See here: "Application of the three-dimensional structures of ...



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