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34

Salt water may have anti-septic properties due to the effect it has on water potential. Pure water has a water potential (Ψ) of zero. A concentrated salt solution has a lower (more-negative) water potential. The water potential of the salt solution is likely to be more negative than that of the pathogen's cytoplasm; the salt solution is therefore referred ...


25

This information is all strictly for Entonox - a brand of analgesic gas comprising 50% Oxygen (O2) and 50% Nitrous Oxide (N2O), Laughing Gas. This mixture is known as 'Gas and Air' and is in very common use. The active ingredient in Entonox is of course the nitrous oxide, so the discussion of the mechanism below refers solely to the N2O as you asked for. ...


20

There are several issues here: 1) Any mucous membrane is a specialized tissue for absorption. Mucous membranes are indeed not so good for passive diffusion, that makes them absolutely perfect tools for active absorption of certain substances, almost independently from the membrane type. To provide some examples: many drugs like cocaine are inhaled and ...


15

Bacteria have a mesh-like structure surrounding their plasma membrane called a cell wall. The cell wall is made up of peptidoglycan polymers that form a rigid crystalline structure that helps protect the osmotic pressure of the bacterial cytoplasm. Penicillin and other β-lactams work by inhibiting the final step of peptidoglycan synthesis, which ...


15

No There are several reasons why this might not be true, as Alexander has discussed. An antibiotic often has a molecular target that isn't present in all bacteria, it's extremely hard to get antibiotics to certain parts of your body, and some bacteria will be defended against a antibiotic attack by biofilms, resistance mechanisms, and sheer statistical ...


13

IDPs are indeed attractive drug targets and there are ongoing efforts to develop drug molecules that block interactions between a disordered and a structured protein. According to this relatively recent paper, however, these efforts have not brought a drug on the market, yet. A few promising studies have shown drug-like molecules that inhibit ...


13

It would also be logical to note that a chewed tablet increases its surface-area-to-volume ratio for absorption relative to an intact tablet, for any absorptive tissue.


13

Just a quick answer: No, there is no way to kill all bacteria in your body once they are there. The only way to keep a person sterile is to prevent any bacteria entering the guts during and all time after the birth. Look for gnotobiology and gnotobionts to learn more about these organisms (including humans). Here are some reasons why: Most antibiotics ...


13

The situation is definitely an extremely complex one, and you should probably forget about having an exact equation to define it. When talking about the effects of a substance on the organism there are several factors to take into account. These are generally put together under the term pharmacodynamics. Some of the factor to take into account are: The ...


12

It's worth noting that earlier this month a large body of resveratrol research was retracted: The University of Connecticut, in what clearly seems like an attempt to get ahead of damaging news, has announced an “extensive” investigation into research misconduct involving one of its scientists, Dipak K. Das. According to a press release, the ...


10

In a nutshell: in order to pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) the substance has to mimick soee properties of the substances that are allowed to pass through. There are different types of "transporters" -- integral proteins going through the cell membranes and accounting for the active transport of the substances they can actively bind to. Smaller ...


9

The WHO has their own methodology, the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC, thank you commenter) classification system, for organizing such data (its impetus is comparing results between studies). Also, if you have $900 sitting around, you can get a subscription for the United States Pharmacopeia. I'm not sure if that can be spread across multiple ...


9

I have been working on this problem for quite some time now and believe me getting specific binding is a real issue with IDRs. Also, since these regions dont form core structure of the protein, the residues are less conserved (more prone to mutations). So in case of evolving drug-resistance contributing proteins this become a bottleneck. I have done some ...


9

Paracetamol is a pain killer, it does not treat the cause of your illness, it only alleviates the symptoms. From its wikipedia page: Paracetamol [...], chemically named N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, is a widely used over-the-counter analgesic (pain reliever) and antipyretic (fever reducer). So, paracetamol does not make you better. Your immune system ...


8

If you search clinicaltrials.gov (maintained by the NIH) for "resveratrol", you'll find 44 clinical trials, many of them ongoing or not yet started. A recent review by Smoliga JM et al states in the abstract: "Although the supporting research in laboratory models is quite substantial, only recently data has emerged to describe the effects of resveratrol ...


7

I can't speak to the causes of hypotension, but you are indeed correct, caffeine is a stimulant. As a stimulant, there is a well documented acute period of hypertension that lasts for up to 4 hours. Interestingly, there is no causal link established between caffiene consumption and chronic hypertension leading to cardiovascular disease (see here and here). ...


7

The goal of the vaccine is to provoke an immune answer, therefore some degree of inflammation is expected in order for the vaccine to work. Since you get the shot intramuscularily, intradermally or subcutaneously, it is local, and the inflammation does not spread. The reason why your whole arm seems to hurt (rather than the place where the vaccine was ...


6

Acetylsalicylate deacetylase is the enzyme responsible for this reaction. Precisely, the present investigation reveals that the hydrolysis of aspirin in liver, kidney and probably other tissues of rats is catalyzed by two highly substrate specific microsomal esterases, ASA esterase I and II active at acidic and slightly alkaline pH, respectively. ...


6

Methyl cellulose is a dry binder. It is used to make a pill with a small mass of active ingredient and as much binder as required to make the pill a manageable size. The following properties make methyl cellulose a good dry binder: inexpensive non-allergic vegetarian soluble in cold water non-digestable nontoxic Most of this information is from the ...


6

In extreme doses, caffeine can - like almost any substance - cause death. Wikipedia has this to say on the subject: Extreme overdose can result in death.[59][60] The median lethal dose (LD50) given orally is 192 milligrams per kilogram in rats. The LD50 of caffeine in humans is dependent on individual sensitivity, but is estimated to be about 150 ...


6

Yes, there are a few. Mostly they are designed in combination with X-ray crystallography of the target which should be inhibited. Then molecules are designed which fit specifically into these targets. The oldest example I could find is Dorzolamide which acts as a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. See here: "Application of the three-dimensional structures of ...


5

As to the subject line, yes, lipid substances or any non-polar small molecule will enter the skin cells and the body below. The reason is because cell membranes simply consist of fatty substance that behaves like a solvent for other lipids. As to the specific question about this product, Monovin A. This is a veterinary product and the producer, Laboratórios ...


5

This may be the paper you are looking for: Ongaroraa DSB, Gutb J, Rosenthalb PJ, Masimirembwac CM, Chibale K. 2012. Benzoheterocyclic amodiaquine analogues with potent antiplasmodial activity: Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 22(15): 5046–5050, doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.06.010.


5

I don't know anything about this topic, but I did find this recent paper: Kamaljit Singh,Hardeep Kaur, Kelly Chibale, Jan Balzarini, Susan Little, Prasad V. Bharatam (2012) 2-Aminopyrimidine based 4-aminoquinoline anti-plasmodial agents. Synthesis, biological activity, structure–activity relationship and mode of action studies. European Journal of ...


5

Yes, both tea (black tea at least, English speakers usually mean black tea when they say tea anyway) and coffee have caffeine which is addictive. Apparently, being able to correctly reply to this question involves defining the word "addiction". My guess is that the negative connotation of the word "addiction" will cause some pressure to not use it. Here's ...


5

There is no damage of brain cells, as in the context of lesions in neurodegenerative disorders. There are, however, two mechanisms attributed to the memory loss associated with cannabis/marijuana and these are purely physiological responses. Astrocyte mediated: CB1R (cannabinoid receptor) in astrocyte gets activated and promotes glutamate release. This ...


5

The US Department of Health and Human Services has a nice set of factsheets on aluminum. In brief, and to specifically answer your questions, they point out that: Aluminum occurs naturally in air, water, soil, and plants. The amounts of aluminum that we encounter in pots and pans are considered to be safe for healthy people. Cooking acidic foods in ...


5

Perhaps the question may also be phrased, "Why is it common for plants to produce chemicals that possess pharmacological or toxicological effects in man and animals?", and to that question it is often reasoned that plants, being sessile and otherwise defenceless food sources for predators, produce compounds that affect the physiology of animals in such a way ...



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