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You might want to see the distribution of IC50s. If the majority do not obtain resistance, the histogram may show a normal distribution. Then you would know where less than 5% or 1% of population distribute. If you have a few cell lines know as resistant against the chemical, you could use them to decide threshold. PS Each drug has different effective ...


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IC50 has an exact definition, that is half-maximal inhibitory concentration. To get this you need to make a series of dilutions of each of your drugs and test your cell lines in each concentration and assess how they grow (eg measure Optical density, colony size, cell count or whatever applies to your cells and setup). Then you can set up a inhibition curve ...


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Excess nitrogen must be excreted by the body and can come from nitrogen in the diet (e.g. amino groups from excess amino acids) or nitrogen-containing compounds produced by bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). Normally the liver and kidneys are involved in excreting ammonia ($NH_3$) and ammonium ($NH_4^+$) from the body. Ammonia can be toxic ...


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Any apparently "magical" powers of cisplatin in testicular cancer have more to do with the disease than the drug. Unlike the similarly male-specific prostate cancer, testicular cancer is generally seen in young men in their 20s or 30s (click on "number of new cases and deaths"). This paper suggests, as is generally thought to be the case for earlier-onset ...


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From the dedicated cisplatin website and Drugbank it appears its use is quite diverse and not confined to testicular cancers. Further, your linked (Siddick, 2003) paper mentions on the first line of its abstract that cisplatin has clinical activity against a wide variety of solid tumors. Cisplatin.org mentions that cisplatin finds use as chemotherapy ...


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9 Substance-Induced Disorders says... Withdrawal results in agitation, severe body aches, gastrointestinal symptoms, dysphoria, and craving to use more opioids. Symptoms during withdrawal vary—some will become acutely anxious and agitated, while others will experience depression and anhedonia. It adds that even with complete abstinence that these ...


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This paper was looking at inhibition of dynorphin converting enzymes and their importance. Although they don't seem to know if it is a single enzyme, or if it is multiple enzymes. This paper looked at bikunin as an endogenous inhibitor of dynorphin convertase in human cerebrospinal fluid. This paper looked at several inhibitors (some of which are known to ...


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Short answer Various inhalants, most notably organic solvents including those used in paint and glue suppress appetite. Background From the Division of Alcohol and Drug Abuse I learned the following: Initial effects [of various inhalants] include nausea [...], and a loss of appetite. And the Humanitarian Irin News reports the following on Nepali ...


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Amiodarone inhibits sodium, potassium and calcium currents. Its major antiarrhythmic properties are thought to be related to prolongation of the action potential duration. Amiodarone also exerts an antiadrenergic effect by non competitively inhibiting alpha- and beta-receptors (Ghuran & Camm, 2000). Alpha blockers relax certain muscles and help small ...


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Amoxicillin is just penicillin with a hydroxyl group off the ring. Their mechanisms of action are the same. Their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier are the same. They can both cause seizures. Both are used to treat to meningitis. The selection of one over the other would be based on the sensitivity of the infecting organism, and the ability to ...


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Doxorubicin and etoposide are both inhibitors of DNA topoisomerase II. When chromosomes replicate as a cell divides, the helical nature of DNA results in the daughter molecules being tangled up (catenated). Topo II is an amazing enzyme; it binds to DNA, cuts a gap in both strands, and then passes another DNA molecule through the gap. Thus it untangles ...


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I do not have the complete answer, but the links below could be useful. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2748742/ The article above says etoposide, which is top II inhibitor and effective against cancer, is not a intercalator. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ben/cpd/2001/00000007/00000017/art00004?crawler=true You would find the ...


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Doxorubicin is part of chemotherapy drugs. Most of them are targeting proliferation of cells, e.g. by blocking cell division or DNA replication. Intercalants and topoisomerase inhibitors are powerful in interfering with DNA replication (not DNA activity). Other chemo drugs might inhibit proper operation of cell division machinery, such as through ...


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Prostaglandins A,B,C,D,E,F represent different non-inclusive classes of prostaglandins and all have different chemical structure. Hence (by classification), PgE cannot be subtype of PgF: PgE have an oxo group at C9, while PgF have hydroxyl group at C9. Back to Dinoprost, it is PgF2alpha and not PgE2 which is Dinoprostone.



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