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The different models that can be used to fit the curves do differ. The linked paper and this website outline the differences; the discussion revolves around an R package called DRC but much of the information is generally applicable. Modelling can also be used to estimate ED50. The parameters and models that are being used need to be consistent with the ...


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The answer is that cabergoline does not need to enter a cell in order to function. Cabergoline (as well as most (possibly all?) other drugs that target synapses) interact with proteins on the surfaces of the synapses. For example, the D2 receptor that you mention is a dopamine receptor which in its active form is expressed on the surface of neurons near the ...


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You are correct. The pharmacokinetics are different, but also quite similar. The good thing is that we know what most of those differences are and can account for them when we scale models from animal species to humans. Conducting pharmacokinetic studies in animals before conducting studies in humans is necessary and useful for a few reasons. The Dose-...


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Antibodies are a unique case. I recommend reading PubMedID: 26726925 regarding the pharmacokinetics of ranibizumab (Lucentis), a Fab fragment, after intravitreal administration. "We assume that the principal pathway for the ocular clearance of large molecules is by a first-order transfer process from the vitreous to the aqueous chambers, from which the ...


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You can use this equation to very generally describe the one-compartment pharmacokinetics of a drug: Cplasma = (Dose*F/Vd)e^(-kt) Where F is the fraction that is bioavailable and Vd is the volume of distribution of the drug. These values can be obtained from the Lexi-comp monograph. If a drug is administered i.v., F = 1. k in this equation is your ...


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The Natural Medicines Database monograph for Valerian includes a pooled adverse effects analysis of more than 20 clinical trials with Valerian for various indications. No diuretic effects were identified in any trials. Natural Medicines Database monographs are available by subscription only and are considered by the vast majority of healthcare ...


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There is one study that I can find that has been cited in the medical literature that examines individuals taking valerian extract for generalized anxiety disorder. In this paper, there do not appear to be any claims that valerian has any diuretic or anti-diuretic properties. However, that's not to say that those properties don't exist. Additionally, there ...



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