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The rate-limiting step of photosynthesis is the CO2 assimilating enzyme Rubisco (short for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) (Jensen, 2000). It uses ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate and CO2 as substrates to generate glucose. Given that Rubisco is the rate limiting step in photosynthesis, an increase in its substrate CO2 would expectedly lead to an ...


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The splitting of water in chloroplasts is catalysed by the Oxygen Evolving Complex. It's all about redox reactions but in general hydrogen is the less electronegative of biological elements so it is easily ionised in many life reactions.


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Morning walks are preferred because the sunlight that falls on the earth in the morning is good for your skin for producing Vitamin D. and also it is said that morning walks are good for: Strengthening Bones and Joints Weight control and also independent of the time of the day, due to exercise and walking you keep moving your joints an this ...


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Not 6, but 9 molecules of Pi are formed in the Calvin cycle, from the conversion of 9 ATP to 9 ADP: Source: Columbia University


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Some of the water that's split is regenerated when the hydroxyl radicals (reactive oxygen species) are converted to hydrogen peroxide, water, etc. by superoxide dismutases and antioxidative mechanisms in the chloroplast (peroxisomes/catalases, etc. take care of this). There's also some evidence that the presence of mannitol, ascorbate and glutathione protect ...


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Single covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons. For stable bond there should be 2 atoms with unfilled higher orbitals and at least a pair of electrons that is "distributed" among those slots. UC Davis have hilarious page on that.


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Water is split in chloroplasts in the light reaction of photosynthesis. Chlorophyll, acting as a photopigment, captures sunlight and transfers that energy to an electron pair of a water molecule. Under the influence of a water-splitting enzyme (George et al, 1989) it is separated into 2 protons, molecular oxygen and a free electron pair. Reference George et ...


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So refer to the following diagram, In the photosystem II complex, water is decomposed into oxygen and protons. That's two electrons liberated from each water molecule. Plastoquinone accepts two protons from the stroma by coupling it to the two electrons it receives from the photosystem complex. In this manner, the protons are transported to the lumen, and ...



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