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6

I will go through your list of questions below: I wanted to know how similar is our nervous system to [the circulatory system]? They are very different, but as in every comparison of very complex systems, there is some overlap. The circulatory system carries fluids, the nervous system electrical signals so they are functionally not alike. However, both ...


5

I found an interesting article that dealt with anxiety and micturition. There are no proven or accepted view on this. There are a few theories as to how this happens. I am quoting it: There are several beliefs for what causes frequent urination from anxiety, and the likelihood is that all of these factors play a role: Muscle Tension – This is one ...


4

The umbilical cord, which contains the umbilical arteries and vein so important for nutrient, oxygen and waste transport before birth, becomes useless pretty much the moment the lungs start working (the kidneys already started before birth). As the baby breathes, the two arteries constrict to stop flow from the newborn to the placenta. The Wharton's Jelly, a ...


3

ANF (Atrial Natriuretic Factor more commonly known as ANP - atrial natriuretic peptide) squeezes (vasoconstricts) the efferent arteriole. This means the pressure in the glomerulus is higher (like if you squeeze the end of a hose) and so more fluid is squeezed out i.e. the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is higher. It also dilates the afferent which means ...


3

It's all about chemical reactions in your body triggered by your brain. Lot's of researches and documents confirmed this is what happens when you face a stressful situation. Stress -> hypothalamus -> sympathetic nerves -> Epinephrine (Adrenaline) -> more urine flow Domino neural connectivity (Thinking) => Domino Chemistry (Body reaction = stress and ...


3

In BACK INJURIES IN THE YOUNG ATHLETE, a paper by three Harvard Medical School/Children's Hospital orthopedic surgeons in the Division of Sports Medicine, there is more than enough evidence that back pain is common in young athletes of both sexes: Back injuries in the young athlete are a significant phenomenon, estimated to occur in 10% to 15% of ...


2

No it isn't necessary to breathe in CO2 from the atmosphere. For the buffer system your brain detects the amount of CO2 (H+ which is an indicator of excess or too little CO2) and adjusts your breathing automatically to compensate so that your blood's pH stays normal. No outside CO2 is needed. Your kidneys also play a similar role but the lungs are what ...


2

Digitalis (which was by the way originally synthesized from Digitalis Purpurea) has two mechanisms of action: The action by which digoxin improves contractility appears to be inhibition of the sarcolemmal Na$^+$K$^+$-ATPase "pump", normally responsible for maintaining transmembrane Na$^+$ and K$^+$ gradients The major therapeutic electrical effect ...


2

Diabetes mellitus is divided into four type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes, and specific type of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is commonly called as Juvenile diabetes or Brittle diabetes. It is also called as "Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)". For our bad-luck the causes of Type 1 diabetes remains obscure, and scientists believes its mostly related ...


1

No, mammals need not take in CO2 from atmosphere. The body's homeostatic function will maintain its composition by checking the amount of CO2 released out by lungs. So certainly animals would survive if put in a CO2 free atmosphere.


1

I'm just going to link you to another post here, which I believe answers the same question. It's because the facilitation of the transient outward current if much more prominent in epicardial regions than in endocardial regions. And the following citation, "Transient outward potassium current, ‘Ito’, phenotypes in the mammalian left ventricle: underlying ...


1

Lets just go with the basic Hodgkin-Huxley equation: $$C_M \frac{\text{d}V}{\text{d}t}=-g_{Na}(V-E_{Na}) -g_K(V-E_K) -g_L(V-E_L)$$ At rest ${\large\frac{\text{d}V}{\text{d}t}}=0$ and therefore $V$ is dependent on the conductances ($g_X$) of different ions. Since $g_K \sim 30\times g_{Na}$, the resting potential is closer to $E_K$ (Nernst equilibrium ...



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