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1

There appears to be either a typo or transcription error in your textbook. According to this Nuffield Foundation and Royal Society of Chemistry article Molecules of most detergents and soaps are long chain hydrocarbon molecules with an ionic group at one end, usually carrying a negative charge, thus making it an anion. This charge is balanced by ...


3

Short answer One way to distinguish between the olfactory and gustatory system in fish is by their anatomical differences. For example, olfactory receptors are clustered in the nasal region, while gustatory receptors are scattered in the head region and beyond. In turn, olfactory information is sent via a single cranial nerve to the brain, while the ...


1

Totally agree with the answers already provided: It is directly caused by constriction of blood vessels in the face. However, from a behavioral perspective, I feel there is an additional function for 'turning pale', that is not yet mentioned: For social animals (such as humans), the face has great expressive value. The face turning pale might fulfill the ...


22

Red blood cells are not equipped with a motor system to propel them through the blood stream. Instead, they are passively transported through the vasculature by the the pumping action of the heart. The effects of dangerous situations on the skin have to do with hormonal effects on the blood vasculature, and not with direct effects on red blood cells. ...


3

It has nothing to do with blood cells per se. Blood vessels constrict in areas not necessary for flight-and-fight response (sympathetic nervous system response). By constricting blood vessels around face, blood is redirected to organs more important in resolving dangerous situations: muscles of legs, spinal cord, and brain. Same way pupils get dilated to ...


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According to Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy, the XYW classfication is used for cat retina. They roughly correspond to the M, P, K cells in primates, respectively.


1

Blood volume is not a dimensionless number - it's a volume. Historically we used to measure this in patients or volunteers by giving a large carbohydrate molecule like a starch that is not digestible or harmful to the body. Just like every other body fluid compartment volume (i.e. plasma, interstitial fluid, intracellular and extracellular) that we have, ...


3

Looks like some parasitoid wasps have zinc coated barbs on their ovipositors which may function to help them bore through wood and lay their eggs. Here's the blog entry about it on IFL Science, and the original article: parasitoid ovipositor specimens had a weight percentage of zinc of 7.19±3.8% (N=42) in the tip regions, which was significantly higher ...


4

This paper actually goes into the whole history of organ transplants. In short it seems to have the following effects: preservation - usually with a specific solution to help. slows down extracorporeal ischaemic damage slows down hypoxic damage slows down the metabolism (energy consumption) and thus the need for oxygen that blood provides. Remember ...


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Short answer Water of 180 oF (82 oC) causes immediate scalding (thermal burn wounds). Background The severity of a scald injury depends on the temperature to which the skin is exposed, and for how long. Residential water heaters warm up tap water typically to 120 oF (48 oC). At this temperature, the skin of adults requires an average of five minutes of ...


3

With arbitrarily broad meaning of "processed", yes. If absolutely nothing else, elemental purification and inorganic synthesis of something chemically resembling meat in nutrition is possible. Prohibitively expensive and stupid, yes, but possible. So then the question becomes exactly how much processing you need to do. Without clear bounds on that question ...


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Of course it is possible for a carnivore to live with a vegetarian diet. Technically you could come up with a complete meal out of vegetables and make a carnivore pup live with it. Dogs and cats are good example of it. They can learn to eat vegi-processed food and as far the nutrients needed are present they will grow and live well. To make them eat raw ...


0

Meristems in plant's kingdom are functionally similar to stem cells in animal kingdom, even you can see it in their names, meriSTEMs & STEM cells ,stem cells are more flexible,okay going back to meristems ,buds are complex of apical or lateral meristems which are covered by special kind of leafs according to enzymatic change,photoperiod and climate ...



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