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29

Interesting question! An important factor here is the let-go phenomenon, which is defined as the current level in the arm that will cause the hand to involuntarily grip the current source. When the fingers are wrapped around a large cable, most adults will be able to let go with a current of less than 6 mA. At 22 mA, however, more than 99% of adults will ...


12

When the body comes in contact with an electrical power supply, two things can happen. If the current flow is high enough, the body heats up just like a heating resistor, and opposed to the resistor, the body can't handle the heat, thus severe burns occur after electric shock. But if the current is low enough not to burn "the conductor" other effects are ...


8

There is a reason for prevalent usage of log2 and log10 compared to loge in biology and other experimental sciences. Usually while doing measurements we are generally interested in fold changes and we generally talk in the sense of two-fold (or multiples of two) or ten-fold. Doubling is a common phenomenon at least in case of growth and so a two-fold change ...


0

The problem is the glucosepane bond is very strong, hence the molecules which would break this bond need be necessarily toxic and damaging to other molecules in the body. Glucosepane breakers already exist, but they are too toxic, and perhaps all will necessarily be that way. All hope is not lost however. Other very effective medical drugs (like clot ...


2

Glucose is the only fuel normally used by brain cells. Because neurons cannot store glucose, they depend on the bloodstream to deliver a constant supply of this fuel. Fatty acids do not serve as fuel for the brain, because they are bound to albumin in plasma and so do not traverse the blood-brain barrier. In starvation, ketone bodies generated by the liver ...


1

Creatine itself is never converted into ATP. Creatine-phosphate on the other hand can donate its phosphate group to ADP, phosphorylating to form ATP and creatine. This is a buffer system for high-energy phosphates, and is very important in organs with rapid ATP turnover, notably muscle. The mechanism of the findings described in the papers is not fully ...


1

ATP prepares myosin for binding with actin by moving it to a higher-energy state and a "cocked" position. Once the myosin forms a cross-bridge with actin, the Pi disassociates and the myosin undergoes the power stroke, reaching a lower energy state when the sarcomere shortens. ATP must bind to myosin to break the cross-bridge and enable ...


1

It seems that lungfish display the beginnings of a double circulatory system:


0

What I think would be a rough estimate (ignoring the physical/thermal requirements for diamond creation) TL;DR -- It's about 68W/m2 given the caveats below. Also: Disclaimer: This is the best way I could think of to figure it out. It is a rough estimate only, and your level of desired precision will introduce more complicated calculations than the ones ...


3

Just a speculation for whether diamond berries could exist or not. This is not an answer for "what is the energy uptake rate of plants" because the actual question tends to be "whether a plant can gather enough energy to form diamonds". For energy uptake rate of plants please see MCM's answer. Even though enthalpy of formation is same as heat required for ...


1

Hypercalcemia does indeed cause muscle spasm, but as someone else wrote, hypercalcemia indicates the calcium levels in blood and not in the sarcoplasmic reticuli. One example where you can observe that increased calcium leads to increased contraction is when you take the cardiac glycoside, digoxin. Digoxin inhibits the Na+/K+ ATPase causing an increased ...



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