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Osmoregulation is a homeostasis regulation mechanism followed by salmons to adapt on both salt and fresh water. Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it keeps the organism's fluids from becoming too diluted or too concentrated. Osmotic ...


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Dizziness is caused by a continuing rotation of the fluids in the semi-circular canals of the vestibular system that transmit rotation information to the brain. After prolonged rotation of the body, the circular canal fluids are engaged in a rotating motion. This fluid motion continues even when the body has stopped moving. The persistent fluid rotation is ...


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Probably don't do any experiments that involve shoving reptiles in a sack and swinging them around your head, as someone will surely call the ASPCA on you. The type of dizziness that is associated with spinning around is called "vertigo". From wikipedia: Repetitive spinning, as in familiar childhood games, can induce short-lived vertigo by disrupting ...


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Hraish is right about the relationship between emotions and gut-brain axis. Stress hormones released by the brain are responsible for the gut-brain reflexes. Anxiety is related to stress and stress hormones are released when anxiety is expressed by the individual. Irritable bowel syndrome(IBS) symptom-based diagnosis, which is having symptoms such as ...


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Apparently there is the effect that your emotions are responded to by the gut brain which it does not say exactly in my supporting material. the article says it has an effect though. that's good enough for me because i experience butterflies sometimes in certain moods. a second consideration is medication although i'm sure you were considering something ...


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According to the post you linked, paresthesia causes the "falling asleep" notion. According to Wikipedia, there are two types of paresthesia, transient and chronic. Transient paresthesia is the type you are describing. Paresthesias of the hands, feet, legs and arms are common, transient symptoms. The most common, everyday cause is temporary restriction ...


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This paper, while mainly dealing with chronic nerve compression, appears to explain the effects of nerve compression on the blocking the transmission of neural impulses (causing the "sleeping limb" syndrome). This paper describes how the application of pressure on a nerve causes a miniature case of compartment syndrome, where the pressure causes the ...


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Paresthesia is defined as the abnormal sensation of the skin, such as numbness, tingling, pricking or burning. Paresthesia is a diverse medical condition and the definitions seems too vague. Most of the books define Paresthesia as a symptom of some other disease. Mostly Paresthesia is categorized as transient or permanent. Paresthesia can arise from several ...


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Hand sweating has been fairly well-studied, both because sweating from the hands is one of the main mechanisms of heat dissipation at higher temperatures and because there is a significant effect on palmar sweating by the autonomic nervous system (the main cause of hyperhydrosis of the palms). Disregarding autonomic effects (stress response), the single ...


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I think the answer should be C because when it is submerged, cutaneous respiration takes place and hence right atrium receives more oxygenated blood.


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It is very easy, use google + pathophysiology and read some articles in the actual topic. There are a lot of pathophysiology books as well (some of them pretty expensive). Another way to do an online course. Just a simple search about your example: It is known that AAAs are characterized by destruction of elastin and collagen in the media and ...


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Does it mean that e-NOS and n-NOS are synthesized by mediation of Ca and calmodulin? Calmodulin is activated by binding to calcium and NOS is activated by binding to Ca2+-calmodulin. The binding changes the structural conformation which renders the enzyme active. See this. Are e-NOS and n-NOS expressed on macrophages after induction [...] ...


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Afaik. RA and psoriasis are probably caused by a malfunction of genes which regulate IL-23 production. IL-23 is required for Th17 cells to survive. Th17 cells produce a lot of things which result in inflammation and since TNF-α is a key mediator in inflammation and break down of joints, reducing the amount of available TNF-α reduces the inflammation. (Th17 ...


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Renin angiotensin is for regaining homeostasis. If you have lost salts, blood pressure and blood volume will decrease due to loss of fluids. But the renin angiotensin mechanism will try to undo this by stimulating uptake of Na+ and water. But still, they can not fully compensate for loss of Na+, INTAKE of Na+ is NECESSARY. By the way, the main stimulus for ...


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Gluten is a protein. The textbook answer is that protein is not stored in fat cells. Proteins are hydrolyzed into amino acids through digestion; some amino acids are ketogenic, and can contribute carbon towards fat biosynthesis. So some of the carbon that originates in gluten may be incorporated into a fatty acid. But the carbon has no 'memory' of its ...


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Anongoodnurse provide an excellent comment in other discussion about how to search PubChem. Ephedrine is not alpha2 mimetic. Pseudoephedrine is alpha2 mimetic, source:


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The answer can be found in PubChem, which is linked in the comment by anongoodnurse. I would not say that Norepinephrine is beta2 adrenomimetic because norepinephrine has many roles such as neurotransmitter. I would just say that Norepinephrine is alpha, beta adrenoagonist. More pieces of information about it from PubChem:


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As The Last Word said turmeric is a suggested medicine for cobra bites in India,also Bromelain found in Pineapple and Papain in Papaya fruit are also suggested medicines by folks. Although they are unaware of these chemicals they do use these fruits for venom treatment. Also oral administration of garlic is said as a prophylactic tool against cobra venom. ...


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Well, turmerin, the compound in turmeric has been medically proven to help neutralize venom from King Cobras in snakes (reference1, reference2). It has also been used in ayurveda for snake bite treatment (reference) The alcohol I guess is just used to help ingest the turmeric and act as a pain reliever, though it strangely seems counter-productive since most ...


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Very nice question! I'll go through your three questions sequentially. Q1: Why does lower capacitance increase "the effectiveness of nearby nodes" or allow the depolarizing voltage to "travel not by ion diffusion, but as an electric field"? A: Capacitance basically results in sequestering of charge of opposite polarities along the cell membrane, which ...


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Excellent question! The difference is the fact that the rheobase is an example of a threshold measure. The threshold, as you correctly suggest, is the minimal energy (typically current level and not voltage as you suggest) to excite neural tissue. The threshold applies only under the specific experimental parameter settings used. These parameters include the ...


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The Hodgkin-Huxley model: $$I=C_m\frac{dV}{dt} + g_k(V_m - V_k) + g_{Na}(V_m - V_{Na}) + g_l(V_m- V_l)$$ Where $C_m$ is membrane capacitance per unit area and $g_i$ are membrane conductances. Reducing the number of channels does not affect capacitance per se (it does in a way) but what it basically does is to reduce membrane conductance to leak channels ...



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