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Cortisol is directly given to the patient - it is then called Hydrocortisone. I don't know why this is done but probably to avoid confusion because both names are too similar. The difference between both forms is one hydrogen atom at the C11 position of the molecule in Cortisol (or Hydrocortison) (image from here): Otherwise is Cortisol (or ...


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This is in the discussion for quite a while. I have found no scientific studies which back the claims of kinesio tape. A review article (from which the quote below is taken) found no clinically important results which support the claims of the tape. The results about range-of-motion were inconsistant and it is not clear if the changes found were beneficial ...


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I suspect that what you are actually looking for is the following: - 1 gram of fat = 9 kcal - 1 gram of protein = 4 kcal - 1 gram of sugar = 4 kcal - 1 gram of alcohol = 7 kcal Those are general and inexact values. They're just often used to give a rough idea of the amount of energy we get from different types of food.


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Numbness is caused by cutting off circulation (that's why hand surgeons can use a tourniquet to numb your hand for a carpel tunnel release procedure). The painful tingling occurs upon RESTORATION of circulation. It's called REPERFUSION INJURY, and here's the mechanism: pressure on the back of the leg reduces venous return (i.e. via popliteal vein) reduced ...


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The odds are that you're noticing the equality of patent nostrils in the middle of a changeover, when both are equally patent. Also, the shape of your nose may be permitting the congested side to still be fairly patent. Your nose is doing what it's supposed to be doing (and everybody suffers bilateral congestion during colds, allergies, etc.) If it were not, ...


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They don’t meet. Some framework: Spinal nerves contain motor, sensory, and autonomic fibers. Each of these have different pathways. Spinal nerves don’t go to the brain. Rather, they synapse in the spinal cord with other neurons which in turn go to the brain (sometimes requiring one more synapse). In the case of motor neurons, we talk about upper and ...


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There are two pieces to this question: a) How does bone resorption (movement of Ca/Phos out of bone into the blood) result in net improvement in bone structure? Bones are constantly remodeling, primarily in response to mechanical stressors. Although you clearly already realize this, I will make it explicit: osteoblasts are the cells that create new bone; ...


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Edit: Added two studies to better show how different types of imagination tasks use different parts of the brain. Imagination is a complex process that can use many regions of the brain. Insights into how our brain imagines have been gained through a number of studies. There is not an "imagination" area of the brain. Instead, different areas, and often ...


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There are two good papers on this that I like a lot: Noise in Gene Expression: Origins, Consequences, and Control Cellular decision making and biological noise: from microbes to mammals. I think they can tell you better than I can, but the major other source of noise is extrinsic noise. Extrinsic noise typically is taken to means two things (both of ...


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Convincing answer was given In Syrups or injections Drugs to dissolve the active ingredients use different types of alcohol use or alcohol is also used in some Toothpaste that maybe cause +alcohol test


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There are some situations when ethanol-like compounds can be present in the blood stream: [...] exposure to hand sanitizers, after shave lotions, perfumes, medications, hygiene products, cosmetics, foods [...] Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can cause false positive alcohol tests. Source: Dr. Kokil Mathur. Answer on: False-Positives for blood alcohol ...


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Raoul's gives sensible comments: ventricle overloading not sensible retrosternal pain $\to$ myocardial ischemia other cause reminding retrosternal pain such as celiac disease: Another possibility is misdiagnosed symptom of the patient. If I remember correctly, the right answer here was that the patient had undiagnosed celiac disease which caused pains ...


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The radius of a blood vessel is entirely defined by only two parameters: 1.blood pressure 2.compliance of the vessel walls Of course, active contraction can decrease the vessel radius. Physically, this is a decrease in compliance, so the above relation always remains true.


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@Michael Kunh Carbonic anhydrase is used in the human body to tip the balance of the reaction $H_2CO_3\rightleftharpoons H^++HCO_3^-$ to the right side, and is an important player in acidobasic homeostasis. To answer the question: $HCO_3^-$ is excreted through the kidneys. This represents the metabolic compensation to respiratory alkalosis that appears in ...


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The process of urine concentration in mammals occurs due to the interaction of the loop of Henle and its nearby collecting tubule. When someone is dehydrated, the kidney will aim to a maximal water reabsorption. To concentrate urine, a maximal amount of ions will be reabsorbed. This is to maximalize the concentration gradient for water. However, the main ...


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Your extremities lose heat at a faster rate than the rest of your body because they have higher surface area per unit volume. Heat exchange happens at surfaces, so if you have more surface, you transfer heat more quickly. Imagine you have a sphere of water with 1L volume, and a long cylinder of water, also 1L, lets say 1cm wide, the sphere will hold heat ...


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Yes, in all clinical situations where you need pure vasoconstriction without heart rate acceleration (mostly valid for iv administration route). The classical example would be in the operative setting. If the patient is in a hypotensive state due to hypnotic drugs, opiates, etc. and has atherosclerosis, you will prefer a drug that will reverse the ...


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The placenta does not turn "hostile" to the mother or fetus. Placentation abnormalities can result in harmful situations, but these are a secondary result. Structural anomalies of placentation: placenta accreta/percreta: means that the placenta took hold not only in the uterine mucosa, which is the normal state, but through it up to the myometrium (muscle ...


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An abnormal placenta position can lead to increased risk of heavy bleeding during placental delivery which further complicates the process by needing blood transfusion drugs. Anterior placental attachment is associated with increased risk of pregnancy induced hypertension , gestational diabetes mellitus due to dysfunction of lactogen hormone secreted by ...


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Well, the answer which explains the difference between calcium and potassium is quite simple. Do we agree that charge separation (between the two sides of the membrane) is the thing which creates the potential? meaning, if the charge concentrations at the two sides were the same, then the membrane potential was zero. right? So here is the thing. You have ...


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GnRH-secreting neurons are not fully independent. To date, their most studied regulators are kisspeptin-secreting neurons. During childhood, kisspeptin-secreting neurons are off, due to GABAergic higher level structures and to lack of free leptin. So both brain and body fat have a word on it. Caveat: most of the evidence is circumstantial (for example, ...



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