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From the link given by @Kendall Such a gradient can be maintained because the thylakoid membrane is essentially impermeable to protons. I think this solves your dilemma of 'why not maintaining equilibrium' totally. The reason for this difference is that the thylakoid membrane is quite permeable to Cl- and Mg2+. The light-induced transfer of H+ ...


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The ion concentrations are different inside and outside of the cell, allowing a potential. The cell becomes even more polarized by the pumping out of H+ ions, making the cell even more negative (potential difference). Then this negative potential happens to cause voltage-gated channels to open and the uptake of potassium occurs. This will depolarize the ...


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I think we can look at it like this Your noncyclic pathway liberates 4H+ from two water molecules. We're doing that because to get one O2, you've got to split 2H2O. This happens in photosystem II. So in the next step (you know, really broadly) the electrons are passed to cytochrome b6-f complex, where each electron allows it to pump 2H+ into the thylakoid ...


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Sorry for the poor quality of the image, but its just as a reference for my answer. You have made the question too complex. From the figure, we find that 1 H2O gives 2 H+ and 2 e-. 2 e-, through quinone cycle, provide 4 H+ i.e. total 6 H+ which form 6/3 = 2 ATP i.e. 1 H2O => 6 H+ => 2 ATP Multiply this equation by 8 and you get: 8 H2O => 48 H+ => 16 ...


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Actually citric acid is not only available in citrus fruit but also in pretty much any living thing. it is an important intermediate in Krebs cycle, but I guess the main reason that it is available in high concentrations in citrus fruits is because citrate is an inhibitory compound for phosphofructokinase, that means it stops the glycolysis and hence it ...


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Among terrestrial plants, roots have two major functions - obtaining water (as well as nutrients) and anchoring plants in place. (However, roots may have other important functions as well.) Aquatic plants obviously don't have a problem obtaining water. So roots presumably function primarily as anchors. There are rootless planktonic plants that float on the ...



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