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Hansen (2006) says (middle of page 19): A link between genetic and environmental robustness is plausible, because genetic en environmental disturbances ay often affect the same functional pathways in the organism, and any increase int he robustness has been fund in studies of RNA folding (Ancel & Fontana 2000), in the effects of heat-shock proteins ...


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Everyone on earth shares a single most common recent ancestor around 3500 years ago (source), and given the vast depth of time between this ancestor and the human/chimp split it seems reasonable to assume that the number of ancestors derived via this route vastly outweighs all other ancestors so it makes sense to conclude that the difference in number of ...


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A quick back-of-the-envelope answer to the number of generations that have passed since the estimated human-chimp split would be to divide the the split, approximately 7 million years ago (Langergraber et al. 2012), by the human generation time. The human generation time can be tricky to estimate, but 20 years is often used. However, the average number is ...


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Fishers Geometric Model (FGM) is a theoretical prediction about the adaptation process in traits. There are a number of things to establish before attempting comprehend FGM. Firstly, shifts in an adaptive landscape, in natural scenarios, are generally quite small. Because populations have been evolving for such a long time and the small shifts in adaptive ...


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In Pigliucci (2004) (repeated in Hansen (2006)) the mutational variance is defined as being the new additive genetic variance entering in the population each generation due to mutations. In consequence the mutational variance is not define at the level of the mutation in the sense that we do not care about how many mutations yield to this new genetic ...



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