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Okay, so for introduction the 4 levels of protein structure (each level influences the levels after it): primary (1st): the order of amino acids. secondary (2nd): alpha-helicies and beta-sheets tertiary (3rd): complex 3d structure quaternary (4th) : 3rd+ non-protein elements (ions, co-factors etc) and / or multple subunits interact. Not every protein has ...


From what you say, I can only give a few advices: For the quantification, make sure your sample does not contain any substances which disturb the assay. The Bradford assay is for example sensitive against SDS or DTT. See here for more details. This prevents you from loading a sample without enough protein. Make sure that you really have protein on your ...


The tricky part is to define what is the volume of a biomolecule as it is a folded chain full of bumps and holes. Water is all around and in the folded structure and is actually important to keep the conformation of at least some of the proteins/RNA/DNA. At the same time we know that 60% of your body in mass is water. Let's visualize that. Bio molecules ...


According to the Molecular Biology of the Cell, (4th Ed), the cell is ~70% water, the remaining 30% of which is composed of macromolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates). While this is just a single citation, there are lots of other sources in the literature that cite similar values.

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