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Introductory textbooks will not get into the details of the lac operon. Basically, the operon is expressed constitutively at a low level that means that Beta Galactosidase and Lactose Permease are expressed at low levels by the bacterium. This is because it takes a little bit of time to build up the concentration of LacI in the cell before it can start to ...


Various protein transfection methods are available. The simplest one is electroporation. By using electric pulses, transient pores can be formed, so that proteins outside can go the inside of membrane. Several protein transfection reagents are commercially available. I think the mechanism is similar to lipo-fection of DNA. ...

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