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The answer is chance or, even better, contingency. About your calculations, it is true that the theoretical sequences are almost unlimited, but the basic scaffolds are not. Very different sequences can fold into the same basic scaffold and have a similar reactivity/function. So, even if not all the sequences have been explored on this planet, most of the ...


2

Trp-Cage is a protein found in Gila monsters, and it is only 20 amino acids long and there are plenty of repeated amino acids so this does not use all 20. But there must be plenty of other examples, there is no reason why physically a protein must use all available amino acids.


2

As you can see on the wikipedia page you linked yourself that beta barrels have far larger diameters (in some cases up to 40 angstroms as stated in this paper) depending on the numbers of beta sheets that make up the barrel, compared to the diameter of an alpha helix (that is fixed) of 6 angstroms. (source ...


2

I'm not sure I understand the question. You've elegantly demonstrated that only a tiny fraction of all protein sequences could possibly exist, but then asked why only a tiny fraction of all protein sequences do exist. Your conclusions about independent origins of life having no proteins in common are accurate, but also consider that you as a human being have ...


1

In this paper detailed analysis has been made on spliceosome (U2-type) composition. It should be noted that this complex has dynamic composition. In the paper authors state that up to 170 proteins may associate to a metozoan spliceosome during its course of action. Individual assemblies contain approx 110 proteins (human). Similar complex of the yeast ...



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