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22

Wikipedia actually has a note on the evolution of kissing. They point out that there are grooming behaviors such as licking and social behaviors like dogs touching noses in many species even insects. They note that it is not decided at all whether kissing is learned or from some sort of instinct. They also mention that its reminiscent of feeding behavior ...


10

I recommend this article: The Evolution and Functions of Laughter and Humor: A Synthetic Approach by M Gervais and DS Wilson, 2005, University of Chicago Press. For your question about the origin, firstly they explain that all laughter is induced by stimuli which are unexpected or unpredictable, experienced in a non-serious (unthreatening, safe) context. ...


9

Yes, there is a biological basis. Your examples seem a little social/cultural to me, though. In any case, here are some examples I came across. One study that showed that women's hormones rose in response to smelling male sweat. There's also a large psychological component that, for example, shows people find symmetry important in beauty. A review ...


6

First of all for the first 22 chromosomes (and the mitochondrial chromsome) are the same between women and men. The X and the Y together are something like 1.5% of the total DNA in the human cell. The X chromosome is also in common, so it has the same chromosomal (genetic) variations the same as women and men. While I am not sure about the differences you ...


6

The biggest problem with this question, (not just here, but for everyone who asks it,) is drawing on our culturally constructed definition of maleness to look for mechanisms of genetic inheritance of what are considered "male" traits. We could measure frequency distributions of height, but we don't have a way to accurately probe any of the other qualities ...


6

Aldridge et al. (2011) show a correlation between facial phenotypes and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in a sample of 8-12 year old boys. They studied two groups of boys, 65 that had been diagnosed with ASD and 41 who had not. They collected 3D images of the faces and looked for similar patterns among the two groups. They found a significant association ...


5

You will be hard-pressed to find any scientific data on this question. Psychology in humans is already a difficult study, at times failing to demonstrate results with real scientific rigor. When studying animal psychology, you face another substantial barrier - language. Although some primates have been taught to communicate with sign language, the best of ...


5

At least for physical data (heigth, weight etc) you can have a look of the DINED Anthropometric database http://dined.io.tudelft.nl/dined/. Here you can find mean and standard deviation data for Dutch population studies on numerous anthropometric measures, and you can stratify the results by sex.


4

Yeah, it's not good: Social isolation (SI) rearing in rodents causes a variety of behavioral changes, including hyperlocomotion, anxiety, impulsivity, aggression, and learning and memory deficits. These behavioral abnormalities in rodents may be related to the symptoms in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity ...


4

Assuming that our emotions are the psychological manifestations of chemical changes in our bodies (an assumption I have no trouble with but one that others may take umbrage at), any emotion will be different. If your brain can distinguish between two emotions, then the underlying chemistry through which these emotions are expressed will be different. This ...


3

Using the Triarchic Theory of Love proposed by Robert Sternberg, love is divided into three components: Intimacy Passion Commitment Using the theory's particular Infatuation is just the passion portion of love which is lacking in intimacy and commitment required for Consummate Love or True Love. Physiologically speaking, this is when a certain sense of ...


2

As the comments suggest, I think a little basic reading so you understand the definitions involved here might be appropriate. The questions are a bit anthocentric, and I think that's why folks with a bit more biological culture might be concerned about the answers. Alpha type structures can be found in all sorts of animals. Sperm competition, where many ...


2

Cytokines are essentially signalling molecules of the immune system. Broadly speaking these can be classed as pro- or anti-inflammatory. Pro-inflammatory cytokines promote inflammation, and anti-inflammatory cytokines inhibit inflammation. Inflammation (again, broadly speaking) is associated with the 'innate' immune response - this is the immediate response ...


2

So, this is psychological attachment. From the question alone, I thought of physical attachment. If you provide stuffed animals and human children, then I'd offer the television remote, a chair/sofa and the cellphone for human adults. In general, many adults are far too sedentary for their own health. Some non-human primates have exhibited behavior similar ...


2

I doubt if a comparison between these two animals in war situation is in order. These two animals serve different roles. Here is a reference to an article in Wikipedia on War Elephants. Elephants have been used in war for thousands of years pretty effectively till the enemies discover their weakness and use it to their advantage. Making the elephant panic ...


2

This is a widely researched topic in the overlap between social sciences and evolutionary biology. Evolution has become very influential in understanding human interaction and preferences. This chapter from "The Adapted Mind : Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture" will give you an idea of how all this plays out in the big picture - its a ...


2

I'm not sure what you mean by psychology exactly, but assuming you are referring to a persons mental state there is a known link between stress and immunity. This link occurs through neuro-endocrine pathways. The central nervous system and endocrine (hormonal) systems are linked through the hypothalamus, a key controller of hormone release in the central ...


2

I think the main question here is: Is there a term…which describes a bipolar disorder of lesser severity[?] Yes. There are a couple ways to think about this, but you’re clearly accustomed to differentiating the manic and depressive phases of bipolar disorder, so I’ll start with that. There is mania (excerpted from DSM 5*): A. A distinct period of ...


1

Glutamate release from photoreceptors is inhibited by incident photons (ref). During photobleaching, assume that the effect of an incident photon drops to zero. The implication then is that if all light is removed subsequent to selective photobleaching, there will be no difference in activation between bleached photoreceptors and unbleached photoreceptors. ...


1

So it seems to me that signs of stress would be high levels of both of these things. Yes. Wikipedia claims [1] the same: Stressors [...] activate the HPA axis, though via different pathways. [...] Stressors that are uncontrollable, threaten physical integrity, or involve trauma tend to have a high, flat diurnal profile of cortisol release (with ...


1

Suggested Reads: Evolutionary Psychology By Lance Workman, Will Reader Evolution of Human Behavior: Primate Models edited by Warren G. Kinzey Social Behaviour of Children: A Cross Cultural Assessment By Ralph E. S. Tanner


1

There are a number of aspects to the perception of a 3D world. While looking into how cinema and TV 3D systems work recently, I found the following Wikipedia articles useful on how the illusion of a 3D world is generated: Stereoscopy Depth perception The articles on 3D Television, 3D film and Head-mounted displays have some coverage of the issues with 3D ...


1

You might want to look at the Danish Data archive: http://www.sa.dk/content/us/about_us/danish_data_archive I have never used their data and I don't know what barriers there might be to accessing it, but the impression I got at a talk by Soren Brunak (http://ctbr.hunter.cuny.edu/Brunak), was that this was one of the most complete databases for studying ...


1

What do you call an acquired trait? A trait acquired during the lifetime of the individual through its relationship with the environment (especially culture and traditions in humans)? If you take any population of living organisms, the variance of quantitative trait in this population, also called phenotypic variance and denoted $V_P$ is the result of the ...


1

The authors use the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) to assess symptoms. One of its cluster scores is activation factor. Summary: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Positive_and_Negative_Syndrome_Scale Original publication of the article, which doesn't list activation factors: http://schizophreniabulletin.oxfordjournals.org/content/13/2/261.long ...


1

There are many signalling molecules used by the human body that have a different effect depending on the cell type. My guess is that serotonin causes these different effects in different neurons. So, while serotonin is capable of promoting feelings of arousal and sleepiness, the two do not necessarily go together. If you look into this more deeply you will ...


1

I think the answer runs along the same logic as this question: Which sex has higher variance of reproductive rate in modern societies - male or females? Because its easier for a male to have offspring with multiple partners, more women would typically produce offspring than men. In polygamous cultures, it can lead to significant differences of reproductive ...



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