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Glutamate release from photoreceptors is inhibited by incident photons (ref). During photobleaching, assume that the effect of an incident photon drops to zero. The implication then is that if all light is removed subsequent to selective photobleaching, there will be no difference in activation between bleached photoreceptors and unbleached photoreceptors. ...


Suggested Reads: Evolutionary Psychology By Lance Workman, Will Reader Evolution of Human Behavior: Primate Models edited by Warren G. Kinzey Social Behaviour of Children: A Cross Cultural Assessment By Ralph E. S. Tanner


So it seems to me that signs of stress would be high levels of both of these things. Yes. Wikipedia claims [1] the same: Stressors [...] activate the HPA axis, though via different pathways. [...] Stressors that are uncontrollable, threaten physical integrity, or involve trauma tend to have a high, flat diurnal profile of cortisol release (with ...

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