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5

Where I studied, every undergrad read Campbell Biology. You can start it as a non-specialist but you will not be one at the end..


5

There are a number of more recent papers dealing with phylogenetic methods in reconstructing language history as well, including work by Colin Renfrew and Quentin Atkinson. Here are two recent high-profile papers. Unfortunately, both are still behind paywalls, but even reading the list of papers they cite / that cite them would be a great way to answer your ...


5

Quantitative descriptions of leaf shape used as diagnostics are hard to come by. There are numerous qualitative descriptions (lyrate, cordate, acicular, etc.), and I think this fits within the example you give that "the laminar shape for this species is mainly ovate." But actual quantitative ranges as you mention (e.g., that the L:W ratio of Acer lies within ...


4

The quote refers to 'robber' bees, but in today's terminology, there are actually three separate phenomena. "Cheating" in bees and other social animals refers to the exploitation of a social contract for one's own benefit. Example: bee workers lay their own eggs rather than tending those of the queen. "Laziness" or "inactivity" of bee or other social insect ...


4

The model used by Jamshidi et al. can be found in the BioModels database with acession no. MODEL1103210001 http://www.ebi.ac.uk/compneur-srv/biomodels-main/MODEL1103210001 A more recent model has also been described in Bordbar et al. iAB-RBC-283: A proteomically derived knowledge-base of erythrocyte metabolism that can be used to simulate its physiological ...


4

There are various types of Mushroom identification Sites. you can take help from: Mushroomexpert Rogersmushrooms MycoKey 4.0 Source: MycoKey 4.0


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There is one book that will perfectly suits your needs: A biologist's guide to Mathematical Modeling in Ecology and Evolution, by Sally Otto It is a very good book that is very easy to understand and in the meantime goes pretty far (It ends with the use of diffusion equation in Evolutionary Biology). I highly recommend it. It covers: How to create a ...


4

In human cells it takes about 20 s to make a 20,000 dalton enzyme. Assuming that the cells concerned are already making mRNA for the enzyme, there will be two main factors: (1) The time taken to synthesize the polypeptide (2) Any time taken to fold the protein (If the enzyme is secreted from the cell there will also be the time taken for the protein to ...


4

Check this out. This resource lists organic cofactors and the associated enzymes. See the wikipedia page also. Many metals also serve as prosthetic groups in enzymes. They include- Magnesium, Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, Nickel, Copper, Zinc, Molybdenum. FeS clusters are also an important part in many important enzymes in mitochondria and plastids.


3

I would suggest something like "The Selfish Gene" by Richard Dawkins. It covers many examples or organisms and how their behaviour at a molecular level is ultimately selfish in order to ensure survival by passing their genes, which is perhaps the most important biological function of any living organism. However, as pointed in comments below, this book ...


3

The Campbell Biology is a good very introductory book to biology. However, it is popular book but a very standard text book. I am not aware of any popular and introductory book that are broad enough to encompass all of biology. I would suggest that you get the campbell and in parallel you can follow free online courseware. There are lots of them. Starting ...


3

Cofactor: coenzymes are organic molecules that are required by certain enzymes to carry out catalysis. Database: CoFactor - The organic enzyme cofactor database of EBI Examples:


3

well i had done some search on this before but not for CHO (I checked for the cells that I was culturing). i can look up for more. Just pasting the data that I have right now. Cell type Total G1 S G2 M S+G2/G1 Ref Neuro2a 9 2 5 1.5 0.5 3.25 De Laat et al 1980 PNAS Hela 16.2 7.7 7.2 ...


2

BioNumbers is a database that contains exactly this sort of stuff. For example, I took this from this site: Number of mitochondria per cell: Yeast Cryptococcus neoformans cell: ~34 Human HELA cell: ~6000 Mouse L cell: ~1000


2

I don't have access to Provine's book, and I can't describe the details of the hooded rat experiments, but here is an attempt to explain the importance of the work. Darwin published “Origin of Species” in 1859. He proposed that modern species were all descended from ancestral species, and that evolution proceeded by natural selection. He believed that ...


2

SNPs in all these regions will modify the DNA sequence. Effects will depend on where exactly the SNP is. I'll summarize the conditions in which effects can be maximum Transcription Factors (TFs) binding sites: SNP in the nucleotide positions that bind to the recognition amino acids in the TF Epigentic signals: C->X [x: A,G,T] SNPs can disrupt DNA ...


2

Branching processes (from probability theory) were originally developed to study the extinction of family names (Galton-Watson process), but are also used to study biological extinction and general evolutionary processes. One example that applies ideas from branching processes and phylogenetic methods to reconstruct ancient languanges can be found in Forster ...


2

The MCM's book is good one. I recommend the book BRS Microbiology and Immunology, because then you can see the thing in the real context and have good exercises too. First Aid for the USMLES Step 1 then explains you how to read for immunology and gives you rather good summary about the topic and some mnemonics.


2

Cellular and Molecular Immunology Abul K. Abbas MBBS (Author), Andrew H. H. Lichtman MD PhD (Author), Shiv Pillai MD (Author) This was my Fall 2011 Basic Immunology text for a hybrid med-school/undergrad class at my University. I have not read others, but every time the topic of Immune responses comes up in other Undergrad courses, I have been well or ...


2

It may also be called as Idea of maximum parsimony. It is used in phylogenetics to construct phylogenetic trees which require the least number of evolutionary events.


1

Alongwith campbell ,look up some "advanced" books - like Bruce Alberts molecular biology of The Cell , Lehninger, etc. It is not necessary to read everything in those books. Read whichever topics interest you the most. There is also a very good site : ibiomagazine.org which has videos of some of the big shots of biology. And remember, most important is ...


1

The principle of least effort / path of least resistance fit pretty well: animals, people, and systems (like evolution or a mechanical system like a machine) will naturally choose the path of least resistance or effort. The principal applies to chemistry (low energy states) and physics (the path an electrical current takes) as well. Occam's Razor fits ...


1

The idea of tumour heterogeneity has been around for a long time (look at the below review and the refs therein), but the underlying causes have been revised in the light of theoretical advances and the novel (Gerlinger et al.) genetic data. Firstly genetic heterogeneity was largely believed to be the cause of genetic instability (an increased mutation ...


1

It's quite interesting that the first reference that come to mind is not a mathematical/theoretical one (which is, in all likelihood, going to be a lot older than the one I am going to mention) but a clinical one. That would be Gerlinger and Swanton and their paper in the New England Journal of Medicine.


1

the SCOP project did this. scop.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/scop which far more than 10,000 proteins. their goal was to categorize the protein folds that were known through X-ray and NMR structures. their current status: 38221 PDB Entries. 1 Literature Reference. 110800 Domains. (excluding nucleic acids and theoretical models). It was last updated in 2009 ...


1

For qualitative features, you could try essentially any flora. Most of these will have descriptions like this one in Flora of China Acer .... Leaves mostly simple and palmately lobed or at least palmately veined, in a few species pinnately veined and entire or toothed, or pinnately or palmately 3-5-foliolate. The problem with using florae is ...


1

Adding to previous answers. For basic textbooks I've been happy with (earlier editions of): Evolution, Futuyma Genetics: From Genes to Genomes, Hartwell et al. EDIT: I should also mention the free pdf book Theoretical Evolutionary Genetics by Joe Felsenstein, with latest update from 2013. He uses it for a course in population gentics. So far, I have only ...


1

Books on my shelf right now (I'm an evolutionary genetics grad student)... Entry level: Evolution - Mark Ridley (not Matt Ridley) A primer of ecological genetics - Connor & Hartl Intermediate: Elements of evolutionary genetics - Charlesworth & Charlesworth Advanced: Principles of Population genetics - Hartl & Clark Introduction to ...


1

I think there might be several places to read a description of these experiments, but they are discussed extensively in a book by historian-philosopher Lindley Darden, entitled "Theory Change in Science: Strategies from Mendelian Genetics", parts of which are available online. See p. 112 of Darden's book for references to other accounts of these experiments ...



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