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Patas monkeys exhibit "sneak mating" where a male other than the resident male sires offspring. Resident males do sire more offspring than sneaker males, but both strategies do co-occur. I'm pretty sure there are other species that have a similar mating strategy as well.


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Do you mean that (A) the choice of using contraception is part of the human phenotype and we can study the selection pressures that apply to it or that (B) you consider the absorption of a contraceptive as an external selection pressure and are wondering what evolutionary answer this selection pressure will cause? If (A): One can only study the evolutionary ...


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Yes, it is possible to reuse yeast in both beer and wine fermentation - commercial brewers do it all the time for cost savings and batch reproducibility, and although I'm not as familiar with making wine, many sites including this one say it's perfectly fine, as long as the viability of the cells is high enough. The yeast aren't necessarily in ...


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How do you define the biological limit? It very much depends on how you define a biological limit. If you prefer, it very much depends on how you define a human! Some women are completely sterile while others are highly fertile and there is genetic predisposition to that. How much "perfect" should the genotype of an individual be so that it is still ...


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Behaviour I would think that the most important causal factor between this difference is behaviour. Men probably smoke more than women, probably eat more junk food and are eventually more stressed. Men also probably take more risks and have more accidents. This last point might have been very important at an earlier time when men were hunting outside while ...


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It is not essentially asexual reproduction that causes mutations. Mutations can be caused because of errors in DNA replication which can happen during both mitosis and meiosis. Mutations can also be caused because of error-prone DNA repair mechanism. Other than these intrinsic factors there are physical and chemical mutagens that alter the DNA or ...


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As stated here the first sexual reproduction seems to be isogamy, which's purpose was likely to repair the DNA, as a damaged cell could repair its' (DNA) strands via recombination with a "healthy" one. As for lineages, the only thing I could find was also in this book at the very beginning, but there doesn't seem to be a difference as for which is the most ...



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