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I use the term "X-inactivation" instead of "lyonization". Anyway, X-inactivation is a very specific process by which an entire X chromosome (or equivalent sex chromosome) in a female mammal is completely silenced. "Imprinting" is typically applied to single genes, wherein genes inherited from a specific parent are always epigenetically silenced. The genes ...


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DNA duplication (imagine, we PCR it) will net be enough. First of all, you also will have to duplicate and pack mitochondrial DNA into the cell. next, as been mentioned, epigenetic modification (methylation) and histone packing are crucial for proper development. And these markers should essentially replicate state of the host cell. My best guess is that ...


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The answer is no, and it is because sequence of the genome is not all information that is required for gene expression and development, there are also epigenetic factors. A lot of patterns of epigenetic marks, such as most of DNA methylation and some histone modification patterns, are set during parental germline development, and these marks are ...


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Artificial amniotic fluid has been used on goats, and for premature human babies. In the 1996 experiment, Thomas Shaffer, a scientist at Temple University, used an oxygenated liquid in a clinical trial with thirteen infants born at twenty-three to twenty-four weeks who were not expected to survive, and seven babies were discharged healthy. Jonathan Knight, ...


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I guess, we are talking about mammals here (because in other organisms leveling up of expression on sex chromosomes happens differently: e.g. in flies females express both X chromosomes, while fly males express their single X at twice as high level). In embryo proper the decision of whether to inactivate maternal or paternal X seems to be at random. This ...


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It is impossible at present to reproduce all the conditions of a womb. A womb is more than a warm fluid-filled home for nine months. A few days after fertilization, the trophoblast portion of the conceptus attaches itself to the uterine wall where it develops into a placenta and umbilical cord while the rest (the epiblast) becomes the baby. Throughout the ...



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