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The disadvantages you mention have not much to do with reproduction, but with locomotion and oxygen absorption. Difficulties to reproduce on land are the fact that aquatic egg-producing creatures typically lay soft eggs with porous shells to promote exchange of water and waste products with the surrounding water. Water is essential for growth as a typical ...


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Anecdotally I have never observed a preference in lab mice, but we have never made a detailed study of it. Males do not seem to favor non-incestuous over incestuous breeding. Though inbreeding does tend to produce smaller litter sizes over generations and inbred strains of lab mice do tend to be less hearty. Though lab mice are a bit removed from the ...


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The problem with Bateman is that he was only looking at zygote production. There are many more factors influencing reproductive variance aside from number of sperm vs. number of eggs. If I were you, I'd read the book titled "Dr. Tatiana's Sex Advice to All Creation: The Definitive Guide to the Evolutionary Biology of Sex." The author is Olivia Judson (by the ...


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Mutations can be caused by much more than just recombinatory events--polymerase fidelity, DNA damage repair, even environmental factors can have a huge impact on DNA damage. While most DNA polymerases have an error rate of around one mutation per billion, there are different levels of fidelity among different polymerases (McCulloch and Kunkel, 2008). ...


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It's a simple sub-set relationship, embryology is a sub-set of developmental (it's a "specialty"). Embryology is only concerned with the embryo - developmental is a larger group, concerned with developments that may occur in other stages of life. Such as the development of secondary sexual characteristics in humans - a developmental thing, but not embryonic. ...


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Since only the male tail is equipped with various specialized sensory and copulatory structures that enable him to locate the vulva and successfully inseminate the hermaphrodite. Hermaphrodites can self-fertilize, but only males can cross-fertilize a hermaphrodite. sources: Wormbook: Male development C. elegans II (2nd edition): Sexual Dimorphism



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