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Try to define your question a little better. It's trivial to stop E.coli from growing (at least lab strains in controlled environments). You could simply not provide any of the essential nutrients it needs (e.g. usable carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate sources). You could treat it with an antibiotic. You could raise (or lower) the temperature, or the salinity ...


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Are there any other ways? You could also keep the poor E. coli alive, and metabolically active, without them being able to grow and reproduce, if you are lucky to have a high-power electron accelerator. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4333221/


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1) Reproduction is metabolically costly, so a high reproduction rate, such as that seen in fishes that lay thousands of eggs at a pop, is generally a strategy to compensate for a high mortality rate. On the other hand, bacteria, that can in some cases double every 20 minutes, have the advantage of rapidly evolving resistance to antimicrobial agents. 2) ...


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The first part of the question is interesting. Does an increased reproduction/mortality rate provide an evolutionary advantage? The concept of evolutionary advantage for a species needs to be used with much cautious as different definition of evolutionary advantage may exist. You should typically have a look at game theory beforehand to understand the ...


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The discovery of genetic sex determination, and determination of sex via male gametes (in XY species, female in ZW), occurred over some time in the late 1800's and early 1900's. Advances were made with methods to stain chromosomes and, in 1891, Henking noted that wasps produced sperm with a varying number of chromosomes. However, he was unable to gather ...


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This is in between an extended comment and an answer. What do you mean by "Natural"? The question makes no sense as the term "natural" isn't properly defined. (I am voting to close as unclear). For example, if you go to an area where there is "naturally" a high radioactivity, this will increase your mutation rate. Is this a natural way to change your ...



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