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12

There are two uses of the term respiration: physiological respiration and cellular respiration Physiological respiration involves the intake of outside oxygen and its distribution to the tissues of the body. Breathing is a part of physiological respiration and functions to bring oxygen into the lungs and expel carbon dioxide. Cellular respiration is a ...


10

Breathing is a part of respiration but respiration is not a part of breathing. Breathing is a process through which oxygen is taken into the body for use in respiration. This involves physical movement to take oxygen (into the lungs) and also chemical action (haemoglobin-carries oxygen from lungs to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to lungs). But ...


8

Overview This is a very interesting question. The ideas behind this have been around for a while and the methods are covered in great detail elsewhere. Here I'll focus on what the lungs can withstand and for how long. The overall answer is that there may be actually potential benefits to perpetual liquid ventilation for people with disease. Trials so far ...


8

I'd argue that we do "breathe" all those gases. Air that we inhale (at sea level) is about 78% N$_2$, 20.9% O$_2$, 1% argon, and smaller percentages of CO$_2$, neon, methane, etc. So all those gases are going into the lungs with every breath in. We take up oxygen preferentially because we have hemoglobin to bind O$_2$. When hemoglobin binds the oxygen, it ...


6

Animals use oxygen as a chemical energy source because oxygen gas can react with many other compounds to form oxides, which releases energy and happen spontaneously. Both carbon and nitrogen can be made to react with oxygen, but otherwise they are pretty inert. So of all the gasses in the air present at over a fraction of a percent, oxygen is the only ...


6

Assuming the jar is airtight-- I think your oxygen consumption rate may be too high and that 40$\mu l$ per hour$^1$ might be closer but since it's a high figure anyway we can use it. 40 $\mu l$ per minute would be about 2400 $\mu l $/hr. A 12-ounce jar is about 0.355 liters. At sea level, air contains about 20% oxygen so the volume of oxygen in the jar is ...


6

The switch from glucose to ketone bodies as the principal blood metabolite accompanies starvation. This prioritizes the heart, which preferentially uses ketone bodies as a fuel (update; actually it's fatty acids, but they're metabolically similar.) This de-prioritizes the brain, which preferentially uses glucose. [edit] I was asked for a source. This is ...


6

The glycogen in the liver begins providing blood glucose. Muscle glycogen is used as fuel by the muscles, fat cells (adipose tissue) release fatty acids to manufacture ketone bodies in the liver and to be used by the brain as fuel, and body proteins are converted to glucose. In short, the body's metabolism shifts to catabolic reactions. If this continues ...


5

A similar question was already answered at How do Gram + bacteria use a proton gradient for F-type ATPase? . In those answers, there is a general belief that Gram negative bacteria do not have much control over their intermembrane space pH, because their outer membranes have many porins, such as OmpC, which allows free passage both ways for protons and other ...


5

According to Wikipedia "In a healthy, young adult, tidal volume is approximately 500 ml per inspiration..." (tidal volume is the volume inspired/expired) Using this figure, together with values for gas composition also taken from Wikipedia, I estimate that in each breath we take in 18 mg O2 (1.1 mmol) and we release 36 mg of CO2 (1.2 mmol) plus 20 ...


5

An addition to previous answers plus some clarification The term respiration originally meant breathing i.e inhaling and exhaling (See here). It was believed that it is the oxygen and in turn the act of breathing is what lets an organism survive. After substantial research it had been found that, in individual cells it is the ATP production by ...


5

if a person is both (1) hyperventilating and (2) has a low blood pH then this is a case of metabolic acidosis... in metabolic acidosis the patient compensates by breathing heavy... why? because hydrogen ions are captured by bicarbonate (the conjugate base of carbonic acid) which is then exhaled as carbon dioxide... metabolic acidosis is not caused by ...


4

This article quotes a professor of respiratory physiology that says "dogs are built to pant just right. The mechanics of their lungs and chest set a precise rate for panting that minimizes the amount of work while maximizing cooling power." They also don't breathe fully when panting, so they can still cool themselves without increasing gas exchange. This is ...


4

I'm taking this question at face value. Yes, fish have gills, but we also have a respiratory surface in our lungs so why couldn't we 'breathe' water and extract the oxygen (since extraction is a simple matter of diffusion from the content of the lungs into the blood). Apparently we use 550 L of pure O2 per day. This works out as approximately 400 g. The ...


4

Bicarbonate is not carbon dioxide. In acidic conditions, bicarbonate will be protonated to form carbonic acid which in turn decomposes into carbon dioxide and water. The overall result is the removal of a proton (ie increase in pH) and formation of carbon dioxide (which accounts for the rapid breathing). The idea behind giving bicarbonate is that it will ...


3

Inhalation and exhalation happen sequentially as Herman stated in the comments. Yes, your general understanding of inhalation is correct. After the air gets into the lungs, the oxygen is diffused into the capillaries covering the alveoli. The now oxygenated blood travels back to the heart to be circulated throughout the body. As this blood enters ...


3

Yes, they are mostly exhaled. The carbon, hydrogen and oxygen that the fats are made of recombine to become $CO_2$ and $H_2 O$ and are exhaled. It's the same overall chemical reaction as if the fats / carbohydrates were burnt, except it's by a different pathway, and the energy produced goes (mostly) towards driving other chemical reactions rather than ...


3

For a start, in addition to the International Space Station (ISS), also look at gas mixtures used in scuba diving and breathing gases.


3

This shows the major biological transformations of carbon in any system (not just lakes). On the Left Side: $GPP$ (Gross Primary Production) is the total amount of $C$ from atmospheric $CO_2$† that is reduced into organic molecules during the calvin cycle of photosynthesis. This is the process performed by photosynthetic organisms like green ...


3

This is more about basic physics than biology. When you hold your breath, you normally take in one last long breath and keep it in as long as possible, Your lungs are therefore already full of gas (remember that the oxygen used by our lungs is only ~22% of the total volume of air you inhale). Therefore, when you release that breath and want to take in a new ...


3

To my limited knowledge, I believe respiration is the chemical process of the body converting glucose and oxygen into energy, whereas breathing is the physical process of inhaling oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide. Breathing is somewhat like an "external" respiration.


2

Since the question is about risk specific to e-cigarette as opposed to classic cigarettes, what's left is the potential harm from the chemicals in refill-fluids (apart from nicotine): polyethylene glycol, glycerol, alcohol, linalol, flavours. You can find cytotoxicity experiments (e.g. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890623812002833), that ...


2

As discussed in the comments, there are theoretical and practical problems with arriving at such data. There have been controlled experiments using canines, but you have specifically stated your interest in humans. I offer a summary of a few observational studies that may be helpful. In this study, 117 patients in intensive care units (who are likely to ...


2

No it isn't necessary to breathe in CO2 from the atmosphere. For the buffer system your brain detects the amount of CO2 (H+ which is an indicator of excess or too little CO2) and adjusts your breathing automatically to compensate so that your blood's pH stays normal. No outside CO2 is needed. Your kidneys also play a similar role but the lungs are what ...


2

This image is a bit misleading since both ways seem to be the reversion of each other, but in fact they are not (although the same metabolites are used). Reaction A takes only place in gluconeogenesis which makes glucose from other metabolites (coming from the metabolism of fatty acids for example) and this pathway is only active when there is an abundance ...


2

Nitrogen is much less reactive than oxygen. Indeed, if I haven't totally forgotten my long-ago chemistry courses, most chemical reactions involving N2 are energy-consuming. Thus you get nitrogen compounds produced by lightning, in auto engines, and other places where there's a lot of energy to spare. Oxygen reactions, OTOH, are energy-producing. You ...


2

Would I be correct in saying that the Bohr effect is ONLY related to the concentration of [H+] in the tissues. I would say no. Because oxygen binding affinity is inversely related to both [1]: high $[H^+]$ concentration and $CO_2$ increase (which is can be a consequence of the first) $CO_2$ is involved in the Bohr effect: The biological ...


2

Long-term exposure to excessive oxygen will lead to damage in pulmonary tissue. This damage resembles the same damage which is seen in patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). In these patients surfactant specific proteins are damaged by proteolysis. This proteolysis is caused by the neutrophil elastase enzyme, after a massive influx of ...


1

In a strict sense, I think you are correct that [H$^+$] contributes directly to the Bohr effect. A paper by Perutz et al. (1980) identified at least two amino acid residues in hemoglobin that account for the Bohr effect by interacting directly with H$^+$. CO$_2$ is not directly involved. Further, the Bohr effect (and the Root effect) are defined in terms of ...



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