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1

AMP is first converted to ADP in the reaction AMP + ATP $\leftrightarrow$ 2 ADP catalyzed by adenylate kinase. So one phophate group is transfered from ATP to AMP, resulting in two ADP molecules. The ADP formed is then used to synthesize ATP as usual, by the mitochondrial ATP synthase or by the glycolysis enzymes. For other nucleotides and ...


3

Pyruvate transfers an acetyl group to coenzyme A. The acetyl group from acetyl co-A is the molecule that provides the 2 carbon atoms that get added to oxaloacetate to form citrate, and as you said, citrate starts the cycle over again. Without coenzyme A, pyruvate cannot transfer the acetyl group to oxaloacetate to form citrate so without coenzyme A/acetyl ...


0

Other than the branching, gas filled spaces within the lungs themselves, there are no other spaces within the trunk and above the diaphragm that contain gas - for a normal healthy lung. All the other space is filled with either tissue or fluid that serve to extend any pressure applied by the muscles you mentioned to the pleural sac that surrounds the lungs - ...



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