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There are two main driving factors to consider here: First, G/C and A/T represent complementary base pairs, as G is always paired with C (and vice versa), while A is always paired with T (and vice versa). Therefore the frequency of G is always equal to C, and the frequency of A is always equal to T. Second, G is paired with C via 3 hydrogen bonds, while A ...


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The frequency of the bases in the genome isn't equal to 0.25, the frequency depends on what kind of organism you mean. However let's take a look at some of them: bacteria, most of the time we can see a bias towards some bases, this could be a GC bias, for example if the bacteria lives in extreme conditions, because GC can vorm three hydrogen bonds compared ...


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I think this will vary greatly depending on the source environment. Your example (marine viruses) is probably due to the large diversity of ocean viruses of which most have no reference genome. Referencing the Human Microbiome Project: A total of 57.6% of the high-quality microbial reads could be associated with a known genome (ranging from 33–77% for ...



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