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1

They queried publications dealing with the lncRNA that studied whether it was functional through over-expression or knockdown. Cells do something measurable in their normal state, that can be observed through microscopy, qPCR, microarray, etc. You use the data as a control which to compare experimental results against. For an over-expression study, for ...


2

With many non-coding RNAs, the RNA is the functional endpoint. Therefore, ncRNA "expression" simply refers to the production of that functional component. Similarly to with proteins, this involves looking at differential tissue production of that noncoding RNA (i.e. in which tissues the RNA is produced). Gene expression is defined in the Oxford Dictionary ...


2

Why DNA for the genetic material? I think the correct and sufficient answer to this is the one so frequently repeated that it is difficult to find the original source. For example, G.F.Joyce wrote in a 2002 Nature review article: The primary advantage of DNA over RNA as a genetic material is the greater chemical stability of DNA, allowing much larger ...


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Most (almost all, AFAIK) mRNAs and lncRNAs start with exons for the reasons already mentioned by David. In a typical splicing event, the nucleotide that is 5' to the splice donor site (lets call it pre-donor) and the one that is 3' to the acceptor site (lets call it post acceptor) are joined together and the intronic sequence between them is removed. If ...


2

Thank you for a great question. I would like to start by clarifying some terminology. First, nascent RNA refers to an RNA molecule that is currently being transcribed and has not been processed. Processing can include the splicing out of introns or polyadenylation at the 3' end, for example. Mature RNA is (typically) spliced and polyadenylated. Second, ...


3

As far as I am aware, transcripts always start and end with exons. The reasons I wouldn’t expect otherwise (apart from my observations when examining Drosophila transcripts) are given below. As you will be aware, the spliceosome (at least for mRNA) is a highly sophisticated multi-component ribonuclear protein complex, and has functions to both splice out ...


0

I’m no physicist, but your statement “To my knowledge statistical mechanics and thermodynamics exist when we have an ensemble of particle such as in a liquid or a gas” is surely incorrect. The problem of protein folding is one of thermodynamics — finding the structure of lowest free energy, and the path by which it is reached from a random coil. One of the ...


2

Here is the results summary of the study that describes the discovery of DNA:RNA hybrid virus: Results Bioinformatic analysis of viral metagenomic sequences derived from a hot, acidic lake revealed a circular, putatively single-stranded DNA virus encoding a major capsid protein similar to those found only in single-stranded RNA viruses. The presence ...



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