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No, it would not be accurate to label them clones, and the organism still goes through sexual reproduction even if they are selfed. Selfed offspring would get two copies of the "same" chromosome (when selfed within the same prothallus), when the parent might have two chromosomes of different origins, and there will also be recombination during meiosis ...


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In ferns (and seed plants) the dominant, largest stage of life is the diploid sporophyte. Within the sporophyte, meiosis occurs producing haploid spores. These spores are dispersed and grow into the small haploid gametophyte, AKA the prothallium. The gametophyte produces haploid gametes - both egg and sperm coming from the same individual, usually. The sperm ...


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The closest thing you will find to what you're looking for, I think, are animals with multiple different mating strategies where one sex (usually the male) can have multiple distinct phenotypes. Some examples include: Patas monkeys, where some males are large and have harems of females while others are dubbed "sneak maters" and instead of having their own ...


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Tetrahymena thermophila is an organism with 7 different "fuzzy" genders, not only male and female. Its seven sexes are rather prosaically named I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII. An individual of a given sex can mate with individuals of any except its own, so there are 21 possible orientations. Here is the link: Zoologger: The hairy beast with seven fuzzy sexes


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Genetic view of adaptation: Do note that this is looking at the view from the POV of a gene. Please read the comments below this answer, for a small discussion on the kin selection hypothesis. Do note that I do not study evolutionary psychology, or work on the level of the population. This is a bit of a misconception, as nature really doesn't work like ...



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