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8

There are two types of sweat glands: (1) eccrine sweat glands and (2) apocrine sweat glands. Eccrine sweat glands are present from birth in humans and secrete sweat that is mostly water and functions in evaporative cooling. Apocrine sweat glands are found in the armpits and groin regions and become active in humans at puberty (although the distribution ...


6

1) Is this plausible? It is absolutely plausible. His particular condition was called Vitiligo (as stated in your quote) and isn't that uncommon, albeit not usually as severe. Skin pigmentation expression changes over time, sometimes dramatically. 2) Is it likely to be an actual disease, or would there be so many mitigating factors that it is ...


5

This is a normal part of the inflammatory process. Inflammation is your body's localised defensive response to tissue injury of any kind, and it is characterised by four cardinal signs- redness, swelling, heat and pain (severe inflammation involves a fifth, loss of function). Your body is performing three main processes here: Mobilisation of the body's ...


5

For question 1 it's just a biochemical response from thermoreceptor nerves in the skin, temperatures that are likely to cause lasting damage from prolonged exposure cause a neurological response - in this case it's pain. In address to question 2 it is most likely down to the physiological response of vasoconstriction. When the body is cold the body ...


5

This depends on a number of factors. Here are the first two that come to mind: 1) Is the cut deep enough to reach the dermis (this is the layer below the epidermis) where scar tissue will form? 2) What is your general state of health, and was there an infection at the site of the cut, which would have altered the normal healing process. Basically, not ...


4

As a general rule, you might want to check wikipedia before posting here. On the other hand, I am glad you made me look the answer up. Goose-bumps warm you up a little. "During the formation of goose bumps, the body is warmed from the muscle tension in piloerection." There are other reasons, which do not directly serve humans, but may be a remnant ...


3

One might argue that since replication takes place in erythroblasts (Brown, Anderson, & Young, 1993), that it's not actually a respiratory infection either. Fluids are simply more hospitable to the virus and more transmissible. As for the rash, perhaps it is because the P antigen receptor that erythrovirus uses to infect erythroblasts is also ...


3

S. pyogenes cultured on Blood Agar should show beta-hemolysis. B-hemolytic colonies can be further identified as S. pyogenes by the results of negative catalase (hydrogen peroxide) test, positive L-pyrrolidonyl arylamidase (PYR) reaction (1) and sensitivity to Bacitracin (2). See ...


3

You're confusing an emergent system with a determined system. Your cells have programming which emerges as the form you see. You are using determinism to decide what your form should be. Determinism gives one reaction for every action. Biology is emergent, not deterministic. The biological mechanisms which are responsible for healing exist in a different ...


3

Melanin is the main compound responsible for the color in hair. It is synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine. The absorption of tyrosine is around 280nm, which is a shorter wavelength than humans can see. Tyrosine can not absorb or preferentially scatter visible light in order to appear colored. It appears colorless as it scatters visible light ...


3

It doesn't matter if its hand or any other human body organ, cold would hurt, the reason being that we humans being warm blooded animal require an optimal temperature-pressure balance to be maintained for our nervous system to work in its natural order. So when we have, in your case, cold hands its like a thermal shock to our hand as the above mentioned ...


3

Vitamin A: One study conducted in the 60's claims that vitamin A acid prevents formation of comedones in Acne Vulgaris [1]. Another one conducted in the 70's found no significant improvement of plantar warts when vitamin A acid was applied topically [2]. Vitamin D: Agents like calcipotriene associated with topical steroids are effective against psoriazis ...


3

Healing in the body is normally independent of the brain. Following an injury, a process of inflammation attracts lots of cells to the site of the injury (including platelets, white blood cells, clotting factors). There's also vasoconstriction (tightening of your blood vessels) to reduce blood loss from the injury site. Your skin cells continue to divide ...


3

This page is pretty complete with examples and references. In summary a lot of the evidence is empirical - you look at smokers and the quality of their skin and compare to non-smokers and the differences are statistically significant and reproducible. It seems as if this is old work, dating from the 1970s. So in many cases these are only observed ...


3

The increase in temperature is due to dilatation of the capillaries in an area of inflammation, here brought about by trauma and is one of the five cardinal signs of inflammation'. This is a natural process which helps to bring in more blood supply for repair and removal of damaged tissue components.


2

It has to do with the way that body parts are more rigid when it is cold. This makes them less flexible and more prone to superficial injury....even without frost nip setting in. In the event that actual frost nip set in, this would be even more sensitive, as you have tiny crystals beginning to form in your cells, like little shards of glass......and, ...


2

The tanning response to UV occurs in two phases: The immediate response begins at exposure to UV-A, reaches a max at 1-2 hours, and fades between 3 and 24 hours. This article speculates that this is due to the redistribution of melanosomes rather than additional melanin production. The delayed response is more durable, occurring by repeated exposure to ...


2

Goose Bumps (a.k.a. - Goose Pimples) are caused by the Arrector Pili muscles in your skin: Their purpose is to increase the distance from epidermis to the top of the follicle, and increase the area between follicles. This has the effect of increasing the amount of air trapped between the hair and surface of the skin. In other mammals the end-result is an ...


2

There are all sorts of things that can stimulate melanocytes, most notably UV rays (ie from the Sun). So yes, melanogenesis can very over age and exposure to the Sun. Young infants often are lacking build ups of melanin in their skin, eyes, and hair, which is why these things darken with age. There are other more pathogenic ways to change melanogenesis, ...


2

Our body contains a lot of salt and which act as electroyte,so when we comes in contact of electric source then the electrolyte helps in the conduction of electric current through out body,


2

Human skin is made up of three layers [1]: Epidermis; it contains no blood vessels; it has 5 cellular layers (starting from surface): stratum corneum stratum lucidum stratum granulosum stratum spinosum stratum germinativum Dermis; it is separated from the above by the basal membrane; made up of connective tissue (with blood vessels and nerve endings) ...


2

The structure of skin (epidermis) can change with damage, when the skin is broken the body repairs this partly by recruiting cells called fibroblasts. These fibroblasts lay down collagen fibres to repair the skin. These fibres a normal component of skin are not as neatly arranged as the original fibres and may also higher in number leading to 'denser' skin. ...


2

cool pics! Firstly, Formadahyde is a terribly toxic substance. Skin Contact: CORROSIVE. Contact can cause pain, redness, burns, and blistering. Permanent scarring can result. Can be absorbed through the skin. Formaldehyde causes organ failure and scarring if ingested. In this case, since you don't have burning or blistering, it seems like a ...


2

Hairs (with their nerve rich follicles) are sense organs, extending our sense of touch beyond the skin. When things disturb our hairs we feel them; bugs, breezes, close encounters. During fright or arousal goosebumps cause the hairs to stand on end, extending our sense of touch to it's furthest distance. In the process the hair shafts that are otherwise laid ...


2

"The formation of goose bumps in humans under stress is a vestigial reflex; a possible function in human evolutionary ancestors was to raise the body's hair, making the ancestor appear larger and scaring off predators. Raising the hair is also used to trap an extra layer of air, keeping an animal warm. Due to the diminished amount of hair in ...


2

UV rays cause damage is by thinning the walls of surface blood vessels, leading to bruising, bleeding, and the appearance of blood vessels through the skin. Longwave UV radiation (UV-A) accounts for up to 95% of the UV radiation that reaches the earth's surface. Although UV-A is less intense than UV-B, it is more prevalent and can penetrate deeper into the ...


1

Free electron is just one type of charge-carrier. Once can also have other types: such as anions and cations to carry charge from one place to another. Therefore causing a current to flow. Even if skin and hair lack "free electrons" like metal and semiconductor, we definitely have a great amount of anions and cations in our body. One example would be -- as ...


1

Vitiligo is a loss of skin pigmentation that causes patches of lighter skin as the immune system attacks melanocytes. It can eventually progress to cover the entire body. Edit: Ongenae, K., Van Geel, N. and Naeyaert, J.-M. (2003), Evidence for an Autoimmune Pathogenesis of Vitiligo. Pigment Cell Research, 16: 90–100. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0749.2003.00023.x ...


1

According to several papers (Sawada and Sone, 1992; Wong et al., 1996), increased hydration appears to be the main mechanism by which silicone oil acts on raised scars. Combined with an occlusive dressing, this preparation would increase hydration of the scar site. Sawada and Sone (1992) compared silicone oil treatment to vaseline treatment and found ...



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