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50

The question is relatively broad and one should take into account that the brain not only consists of neurons, but also glial cells (supportive cells) and pre-mitotic neuronal stem cells. Furthermore, as critical fellow-scientists have indicated, developmental stage is very important, as the developing embryonic brain is very different from the adult brain. ...


14

Fetal RNA - mRNA and microRNA - has been detected in maternal blood as shown in this report. Here's a second report showing how fetus gives back to repair the maternal myocardium - fetal cells traffic to an injured maternal myocardium and undergo cardiac differentiation.


7

There are legitimate case reports in credited journals of hyperdontia, or the condition of having supernumerary teeth. Such cases are often associated with congenital syndromes-- cleft lip and palate, trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, cleidocranial dysplasia, and Gardner's syndrome. I included a case report and a comprehensive review for you below. Case ...


7

To add to Christiaan's answer, I'll mention one striking example of long-distance neuronal migration in the adult mammalian brain: the so-called Rostral Migratory Stream found in rodents, in rabbits and both the squirrel and rhesus monkey. Neuronal precursors originating in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain migrate to reach the main olfactory bulb ...


6

The easiest answer to this question is NO. We will not be able to print humans any time soon, if ever. Despite the potential of the technology, it will likely still make more sense to use stem cells to fight genetic diseases, create limited cellular masses such as hearts and other organs, and to do reconstructive surgeries such as skeletal repairs. The ...


5

There is no specific dye for stem cells. You would have to do an immuno-histochemical staining for stem cell markers such as Sox2/Oct4 etc. Usually stem cells have a distinct morphology (round and clustered). You can use Leishman's (or Romanowsky-Giemsa) stain.


5

I found a protocol by ATCC for NTERM2 cells, and it didn't mention any specific flask, so any cell culture flask would do. Since ATCC is basically a cell culture bank I trust that their protocol is valid.


4

There are several competing models of metastasis, and this question does go right to the differences between them. The primary thing to remember about CSCs is that all evidence suggests that they are a tiny, tiny subset of tumor cells. CTCs, meanwhile, consist of whichever cells manage to acquire the right combination of motility, invasiveness, and ...


4

From this article: iPSC's or induced pluripotent stem cells are somatic cells that have been driven to acquire an induced pluripotent cell state. Somatic cells can be any cell of the body except sperm cells, egg cells and undifferentiated stem cells. Investigators can induce these cells to 'return' to a stem cell like state by forcing the expression of key ...


4

The hematopoietic stem cells are quite rare, and each progenitor cell produced by a stem cell gives rise to a large number of red blood cells (and other blood cell types). I'm not sure if the precise number of offspring for the earliest progenitor cells is known in vivo, but recent cell culture models indicate that early progenitors can give rise to as many ...


3

In almost all metazoa, the pro-germline cells get segregated from other stem cells at an early stage of development and they thrive and differentiate in their neighborhood. This is important in order to preserve the germline. This post provides some basic explanation. However, even drosophila have adult multipotent stem cells and help in the formation of ...


3

When you look at the development of the embryo, at the beginning all cells are totipotent, meaning they can develop into any cell type of the body. This changes relatively fast by differentiation, which means that the totipotent cells develop into more specialized cell types, which then can not give rise to all cell types. So the different germ layers (meso, ...


3

No. Very early in the development of an organism, it is just a clump of cells. Then those cells communicate, and determine where they are in the clump, which determines their eventual fate in the full organism. In mammals, for instance, cells split into three different layers, and the skin and nerve cells develop from cells in the outermost layer...etc. ...


3

The difference in designation is the timing of the foundation of the cell line and the tissue that it was sourced from. Embryonic Stem Cells are harvested from the inner cell mass of a Blastocyst around day 5 post fertilization. This is the first or second generation of cells to have started to differentiate, but they still have Pluripotency, which means ...


3

I heard that as well and was skeptical at first, but apparently there IS science to support it- http://mblogs.discovermagazine.com/80beats/2011/11/21/helpful-mouse-fetuses-naturally-send-stem-cells-to-mom-to-fix-her-damaged-heart/ Officially found with mice, but it supports how some women that suffered damages while pregnant are sometimes found with their ...


3

Chimpanzees have fingerprints. Next all you have to do is find the homologue of SMARCAD1 and let the animal testing begin! But actually I doubt it will work. This website goes into some depth and links some additional sources that show fingerprints are developed in the womb and are fully set by 6 months of gestation. It seems likely that SMARCAD1 may ...


2

I'm not sure about the first developmental stages but, given you already have hundreds of cells with slightly different physiology, the next developmental stages like dev. of neural tube happen through excretion of translation factors and growth factors in several cells. Each of those cells that are in a region where more than one excretion overlaps get a ...


2

Stem cells are not all 'unipotent' - they cannot necessarily differentiate into any type of cell. For instance, resident stem cells in tissues such as muscle - myo-satellite cells - are partially differentiated and during cell division one daughter differentiates further to become a myocyte (for example), and the other daughter the replacement myosatellite ...


2

No. The reason is that development is extremely important for getting tissue organized on the appropriate scale. We can place groups of cells or a scaffold somewhere, but we can't assemble a working cell from component bits, much less make one that has one end in one's toe and the other in the spine (as is the case with sensory neurons for our legs). So ...


2

You have a few misconceptions about stem cells, I will try to explain where they are. First of all, cells are not independent. They influence each other with signals and secreted messenger substances. If you look at a human embryo the state of totipotency (where all cells can differentiate into each cell type of the body) ends after 3-4 days when the ...


2

A skeleton is itself very complicated. It's not just apatite in the shape of a skeleton. The bones have structure, and many have bone marrow. Tiny cells navigate through the bone matrix, keeping it sound. Those cells, and the ones in the marrow, need a blood supply to keep them alive. Plus, what swbarnes2 said.


2

Stem cells in embryos are the basis for the development of the organism i.e once the gametes are fused you have a produced a cell that will replicate and differentiate into every cell that body is composed Any cell that differentiates into another cell can be defined as a stem cell. Yes, the testes only produced sperm cells but a localized group of stem ...


2

Stem cell therapies do in fact utilise viruses. In the examples cited, the stem cells were infected by viruses in vitro, genetically modified, and then reintroduced into the target as autologous transplants. The main issue at hand is that live viruses introduced directly would be targeted and destroyed by the immune system, which greatly reduces their ...


2

It would not be possible to differentiate CSC from normal population non-invasively and select them out. You may do a single cell expression analysis to say if a CSC is present in a population or not but there is no magic bullet method for eliminating them. Also there are several oncogenes and some of them are also required for usual stem cell function. HAT ...


2

Yes, stem cells can pass through blood vessels and capillaries (as @WYSIWYG points, these cells should be small enough to fit inside that capillary). The interesting thing is that they posses multiple mechanisms of transmigration. They are attracted by TNF-alpha activated endothelial cells [1] and can pass through by [1]: leukocyte-like diapedesis ...


2

This is too long for a comment, so I have to write it in here: Mostly this is because other cell lines are more practical in the lab. Stem cells are much more tricky to maintain - especially if you want to keep their stem cell properties. They only grow very slow, tend to differentiate when they get too much stress, cellular signals and so on and need ...


2

We aren't there yet. There is a complex interplay between antigen recognition, presentation, and activation that would have to be worked out. You would also need to engineer the corresponding T-Cell which could recognize the antigen, become activated, which means you also need to develop a dendritic cell that can present to the T-cells, so that they could ...


2

Spermatozoa are produced in a process called spermatogenesis. They come from germ cells, which in the human males are located in the testes. These are not affected by stem cell transplants. In females, the equivalent oocytes are already present at birth. They undergo meiosis later, but since their genetic composition is already set at birth, they, too, are ...


1

How about Brdu...? Normally, stem cells have active proliferation, their dividing are fast, thus they could uptake Brdu, and this is one of basic stem cell test in papers. I think it isn't too expensive, comparing with antibodies.... but you may need UV-light, and don't let children play Brdu. It is carcinogen, however, I think it only a very high dose can ...


1

Signalling in the TGFβ pathway normally puts a brake on the progress of cells through the cell cycle - it counteracts the action of myc for example, partly by regulating the expression of myc. In Burkitt's lymphoma myc escapes this regulation because of a chromosomal translocation, tipping the regulatory balance over to uncontrolled cell growth. This ...



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