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Internal symmetry in this case refers to cases where a part of the protein structure can be superimposed (approximately) on another. It's not a strict mathematical symmetry, more a 'resemblance' For instance in the 12 transmembrane helix transporters, the first six helices are arranged similarly to the second six, such that if one were to cut the protein in ...


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I think you have misunderstood the "inside" part of the "positive-inside rule". Perhaps because "inside" is indeed an imprecise term (but now it is history and cannot be changed ;) ). In order to understand it a bit better it helps to think about the topology of the membrane. During synthesis most membrane proteins (ignoring peroxisomal and mitochondrial ...



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