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According to the Taxon guidelines for authors (pdf, pg 205), a triple-bar (≡) indicates a homotypic synonym: Homotypic names are cited in chronological order in a single paragraph with the identity sign (≡), followed by the type. So, in your example, Dorstenia foetida was described on the basis of the same type specimen used by Forsskål in 1775 to ...


It really is mostly the siphuncle as @augurar mentioned. The siphuncle is present in modern ammonites, cuttlefish, and Spirula(a deep-sea squid with an internal chambered shell). It links shelled cephalopods neatly with other cephalopods(both extant and extinct) and distinguishes them from other shelled things like snails.


Yes, dodos were dinosaurs, but that probably doesn't quite mean what you think it does. Dodos were birds, closely related to pigeons. All birds are dinosaurs.

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