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In the periphery (e.g. on our fingertips), our body senses external temperature through nerve terminals, expressing certain TRP channels. These are ion channels that are sensitive to temperature (note that TRP channels can be sensitive to several things, such as pH, light, and stretch) and allow entrance of cations in the cell when the temperature is higher ...


11

To complement on nico's answer (I don't have enough rep to comment), TRP channels seems to be also sensitive to increment or decrement of temperature as reported recently in a paper by Gallio et al1. Probably that channels have incomplete adaptative behavior that make them sensitive both to increment and absolute temperature values. [1] Gallio M, Ofstad ...


3

I've found a good resource for this--an open-access review by Nakamura, "Central Circuitries for Body Temperature Regulation and Fever." In it, the author provides a nice summary figure of the circuitry involved in temperature regulation (see below). As I suspected, the hypothalmus is pretty central to temperature regulation. I had forgotten about the ...


3

I am assuming that you are referring to a baseline human cooled to a core body temperature of 30C from birth. I am also assuming that you are ignoring the fact that the environmental temperature (and thus the temperature of the extremities) has to be much lower than 30C to cause a core temperature of 30C. Thus, I am ignoring hypothermia-based gangrene, ...


3

As far as I know, the main challenges the plants have to face in cold environment are metabolism reduction and membrane fluidity. If the temperature is even lower, they may face freezing. Increasing the metabolism is quite hard, because plants usually are unable to increase their temperature by its own. Plant may produce more pigments in order to absorb ...


3

This temperature range would be a compromise between a very low temperature needed to limit natural decay or decay triggered by micro-organisms (the lower the temperature, the lesser the decay) and the formation of destructive ice crystals. Only pure water freezes at 0°C (32°F) under atmospheric pressure. But the content of apple cells and cell walls is a ...


3

The fingers and toes (for example) ARE at lower temperatures than the interior of the torso. It's why it's so easy to get frostbite on the extremities. As for temperature regulation of the testes, you have to also consider that humans evolved without clothes...i.e. The testes just "hang out" and get lots of airflow, as opposed to modern times, when they are ...


2

Gains heat; humans are not particularly well-adapted to make use of heat as an energy source. In a simple matter, if something you eat is hot when it goes in then the average temperature of the body has increased. More relevantly (and to get this more on-topic for biology), eating anything will generally increase your body temperature, as in order to ...


1

Disclaimer: the answer is very broad and covers both the situations I am confident about, as well as those I understand only superficially. The outcome depends on particular temperatures. Example - cold shock response: "Cold shock response is the physiological response of organisms to sudden cold, especially cold water. In humans, cold shock response is ...


1

In a cold climate, do people often blow out the air from their lungs a lot when living in the cold condition to keep their lungs warm? No, and it wouldn't make any sense: breathing more means inhaling more cold air that needs to be warmed up, so the result is a heat loss. The more so, as cold air (< 0°C) has a low water vapor pressure, while the lung ...


1

Heat loss hypothesis: I would rather think that blowing while speaking means that one has to inspire often and therefore he would lose much heat by convection. According this hypothesis, I would rather expect to see southern people blowing lots while speaking. Metabolism hypothesis: We might say that at low temperature the metabolism increases and ...


1

In response to cold your body causes blood supply to the skin to drop in the whole body. This is to conserve heat, but results in us feeling really cold. Exercising reverses this, resulting in an increased blood supply to the skin in order to remove excess heat and in this case we feel hot. As mentioned, the head receives a large blood supply, and ...


1

Things other than the temperature that could affect whether or not the coat is necessary: Is it raining? a wet dog will get cold quicker. How long/thick is the fur? thin coats of fur will be less efficient at keeping the dog warm than thick. Is it windy? Wind blows warm air out of the fur. How big is the dog? Size & body fat will affect the rate of heat ...



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