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16

I found this post by Russ Altman quite good. Below is his opinion about the two similar but distinct fields: Computational biology: the study of biology using computational techniques. The goal is to learn new biology, knowledge about living sytems. It is about science. Bioinformatics: the creation of tools (algorithms, databases) that ...


15

When dealing with humans, there are only two Biological genders as defined by the presence or absence of the Y-Chromosome. If the Y-Chromosome is not present, or through some process gets totally deactivated, the human will appear and function as a Female. XX = Female XY = Male XXY = Male (Klinefelter's Syndrome) XYY = Male (Aneuploidy - Normal ...


9

I think this question is on topic here, although yes you would definitely get a lot of answers at BioStars. But consider this from the bioinformatics tag wiki on this site. Bioinformatics is a broad field that interfaces a variety of life science disciplines (biology, genetics, biochemistry, biophysics, etc) with a variety of quantitative sciences ...


8

Bioavailability is a concept which applies to nutrients and drugs which pass through first-pass metabolism, i.e. orally (and to some extent nasally) consumed substances. Anything absorbed in the gut first passes through the liver before reaching the rest of the circulation, and both the gut and liver may metabolise it to some extent. The liver in specific ...


6

I think you might be confusing sex and gender. The terms are often used interchangeably, but strictly speaking, they have different biological meanings. Sex refers to the biological categorization based on genetics, reproductive organs, or similar things, whereas gender is based on social identity. For humans, there are only two sex chromosomes, X and Y, ...


5

Aside from the actual microbial cells themselves, biofilms are a slime matrix made of a variety of substances, including DNA, lipids, proteins, and other signaling molecules, but the major component is something called extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), also known as exopolysaccharides. Succinoglycan from Sinorhizobium meliloti These are high ...


5

The figure of 350 - 600 Units per mg refers to the specific activity of the enzyme. The Unit is International Unit or IU and is usually defined as that amount of enzyme that will catalyze the transformation of 1 micromole of substrate (or product) per min, under defined assay conditions (such as pH, temperature, substrate concentration, presence of Mg++, ...


5

From the page linked from your link: Unit Definition One unit will convert 1.0 μmole of phospho(enol)pyruvate to pyruvate per min at pH 7.6 at 37 °C. So, the unit is defined by activity, and there is no way to know how many molecules or milligrams of protein are included


5

I'm actually not sure myself. If I were to use something, I would go with "Mitos'd" and "Meios'd". However, you may not win over many fans, depending on the audience. If it's with students or maybe a professor, you could get away with shortening the processes. If it's in any formal setting, be as precise and descriptive as possible. It's not a lot of ...


5

It seems to me that the difference is mainly semantic, although the aims of synthetic biology are undoubtedly more ambitious than those of genetic engineering in, say, the 80s and 90s. The Wikipedia page on genetic engineering has this definition of the difference: Synthetic biology is an emerging discipline that takes genetic engineering a step ...


5

How about "splicing fragments"? It might be easier to refer to them according to the mechanism of production.


5

Intelligence is something which has to have a definition, and there are many, but I would cautiously say no. The reason that I say this is because swarming behavior can be largely reproduced by a simple set of rules - matching distance to your neighbors and direction and speed as well. To me this really removes any intention or even conscious element to ...


4

My understanding is that synthetic biology is genetic engineering 2.0. The difference is in the approach. Whereas genetic engineering projects are usually ad hoc, synthetic biology aims to apply proper engineering principles such as standardisation, modularisation, and reusability. Synthetic biologists create and use libraries of standard parts that are ...


4

Cytokines is the general class of molecules to which chemokines, interferons, interleukins and others belong. Biologists dispute whether something is a hormone or a cytokine, but generally the consensus goes with if it's to do with immunology it's a cytokine or if the resting concentration is in the picomolar range, but that's a very rough distinction. ...


4

Bacterial biofilms are a bunch of bacteria that have attached themselves to a surface or to each other as a floating mat to form a solid phase community. Its not seen in the lab so much, but they are common in nature. The bacteria not only adhere to the surface, but each other through a matrix of polymers they secrete. The bacteria in a biofilm are ...


4

Neurotransmitters were classically the most specific in terms of demands on experimental demonstration (thus, the so-called "classical neurotransmitter") but the chief role of neurotransmitter is direct neuron-to-neuron communication via the synaptic cleft in which the post-synaptic neuron has channels that readily engage the neurotransmitter. Classical ...


4

Yes, the complement system is part of the innate immune system. It can be activated by the: classical pathway (activated through bound IgM and IgG molecules but also by DNA, collagen (both are usually not available freely outside of cells) and c-reactive protein) lectin pathway (activation by binding of mannose through the mannose binding lectin on the ...


4

As far as online references are concerned, they should be equivalent (as "selective" becomes "making a selection"). The important difference in my understanding is that speaking in terms of biology, "selection" triggers associations with evolutionary terminology, whereas "selective" doesn't. Thus, as far as I am concerned, "selective pressure" could be ...


3

(Reposting my comment as an answer since it seems to be what was required.) A DNA molecule that replicates independently of chromosomal DNA is an episome. By this definition a plasmid is (usually) an episome. If a plasmid integrates into a chromosome by some mechanism (as for example in Hfr strains of E. coli where the F plasmid is integrated) the plasmid ...


3

The "probe by background" interaction is the response of different probes as a function of background gene expression. For example, depending on which of the 6 backgrounds a probe is in, the drug response may go up or down. Probes as a function of background is probably easier to imagine than background as a function of probe (which is equally valid). For ...


3

Immunopanning is essentially an immunoprecipitation (IP) of cells using an antibody immobilized to a solid surface, like a cell culture plate. Conventionally, an IP is performed using small agarose or magnetic beads (~50 to 150μm in size) conjugated to an antibody or Protein A/G, and can pull down individual proteins, protein complexes, and/or nucleic acid ...


3

I agree with Terdon's terminology in the comment ("ubiquitous" or "widespread"). You can use clade-specific or species-specific for a restricted character. For the characters that appear in all species of a branch and in a quantitative way you can also provide the estimated age of the last common ancestor to the branch featuring that character. This tool ...


3

A copy number variation (CNV) is when the number of copies of a particular gene varies from one individual to the next. From: the NIH Glossary Focal CNVs are regions of repeated genetic information that only span a small proportion (<25%) of the chromosome arm (although this does not seem to be a consistent rule), and can contain few genes. ...


3

They seem to be practically the same, with the exception of the goals. Genetic Engineering is the direct modification of the genes of an organism which results in capabilities being added or taken away. Synthetic Biology aims to modify the behaviors of an organism or integrate the behaviors of multiple organisms into a singular whole. As is explained in ...


3

Your question really applies to any scientific theory, not just evolution. The problem is that, outside of the scientific world, a theory is often thought as something unproven, an unproven guess if you wish. This is not true for scientific theories, which, instead are confirmed by experimental data. The OED defines theory as: A scheme or system of ...


3

rs id is reference SNP cluster ID see here. It's basically a unique identifier. This table is taken from your link: rs position 0 1 rs11089130 14431347 C G rs738829 14432618 A G rs915674 14433624 A G The allele codes are the 3rd and 4th columns. An SNP is site where ...


3

There are too many questions that ask for too many explanations, I don't think anybody wants to answer to all that. It is not really possible to give a "very basic without technical term" definitions to most of these words. If you want to write an article in mathematical biology, I am afraid you will have to take some time to learn a bit about biology. Go ...


3

See here. Bacto is a brand which used to be marketed by Difco. It is a casein (milk protein) hydrolysate.


3

You are correct, the 368 stands for the position of the amino acid in the protein's sequence - this particular serine is the 368th residue in the protein counting from the amino-terminal end.


2

In genetics engineering we use and manipulate natural genetic elements but in synthetic biology we make new gene elements and network.



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