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19

I found this post by Russ Altman quite good. Below is his opinion about the two similar but distinct fields: Computational biology: the study of biology using computational techniques. The goal is to learn new biology, knowledge about living sytems. It is about science. Bioinformatics: the creation of tools (algorithms, databases) that ...


15

When dealing with humans, there are only two Biological genders as defined by the presence or absence of the Y-Chromosome. If the Y-Chromosome is not present, or through some process gets totally deactivated, the human will appear and function as a Female. XX = Female XY = Male XXY = Male (Klinefelter's Syndrome) XYY = Male (Aneuploidy - Normal ...


10

I don't know if they are classified as organs, but basically, blood vessels match the criteria for being organs. Quoting SIU School of Medicine: Blood vessels are basically tubular organs found within other organs. Biology Reference states the same: Even the glands within the integument can be considered organs; any gland is primarily secretory ...


9

I think this question is on topic here, although yes you would definitely get a lot of answers at BioStars. But consider this from the bioinformatics tag wiki on this site. Bioinformatics is a broad field that interfaces a variety of life science disciplines (biology, genetics, biochemistry, biophysics, etc) with a variety of quantitative sciences ...


9

The cardiovascular system is usually lumped together as an organ. So blood vessels would be included here but you are right in that this is a bit strange being that it includes the heart and the vasculature.


8

Bioavailability is a concept which applies to nutrients and drugs which pass through first-pass metabolism, i.e. orally (and to some extent nasally) consumed substances. Anything absorbed in the gut first passes through the liver before reaching the rest of the circulation, and both the gut and liver may metabolise it to some extent. The liver in specific ...


7

Such projections are more formally known as spiculations. Most commonly, we talk about spiculations with respect to the radiographic appearance of malignant breast and lung lesions. This paper* describes the correlation between the mammorgraphic appearance of spiculated breast lesions and their pathology (microscopic appearance), which is a reasonable start ...


7

If you read the lines immediately following your quoted line (on p.391, left column, last paragraph in the linked article) it becomes clear what relay competent means (and I quote): As a result, the cells sense and move toward a source of cAMP, and they relay the signal as well by secreting cAMP. [..] After about 8 h of starvation randomly located cells, ...


6

Aside from the actual microbial cells themselves, biofilms are a slime matrix made of a variety of substances, including DNA, lipids, proteins, and other signaling molecules, but the major component is something called extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), also known as exopolysaccharides. Succinoglycan from Sinorhizobium meliloti These are high ...


6

I think you might be confusing sex and gender. The terms are often used interchangeably, but strictly speaking, they have different biological meanings. Sex refers to the biological categorization based on genetics, reproductive organs, or similar things, whereas gender is based on social identity. For humans, there are only two sex chromosomes, X and Y, ...


6

Optical Density is synonymous with absorbance which is based on the principle of absorption of light. The machine that is used to measure absorbance is called a spectrophotometer. Spectrometer does not indicate that light absorbance is being measured. A spectrometer can measure any spectrum; for e.g. Mass Spectrometer measures the spectrum of molecular mass ...


6

They get used somewhat interchangeably, which blurs the lines on the definitions. When I had my anatomy classes, sinews were regarded as an inclusive class, which included both ligaments and tendons. For the breakdown: Tendon: Fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone. Ligament: Fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone. Sinew: Includes both of the ...


6

Broad means wide as in a wide range. Normally, antibodies have one epitope they recognize, i.e., one specific target; they are said to have a narrow range of targets. Some antibodies, however, recognize multiple targets, i.e. the number of targets they recognize is larger and their target range is widened. They are said to have a broad ...


6

This phenomenon is described as regressive evolution (the loss of a phenotypic trait). There are several reasons why this occurs: Neutral mutations which become fixed through genetic drift. Positive selection of regressive mutations that are beneficial. Pleiotropic antagonism: positive selection for one trait may have the consequence of disrupting ...


5

The figure of 350 - 600 Units per mg refers to the specific activity of the enzyme. The Unit is International Unit or IU and is usually defined as that amount of enzyme that will catalyze the transformation of 1 micromole of substrate (or product) per min, under defined assay conditions (such as pH, temperature, substrate concentration, presence of Mg++, ...


5

From the page linked from your link: Unit Definition One unit will convert 1.0 μmole of phospho(enol)pyruvate to pyruvate per min at pH 7.6 at 37 °C. So, the unit is defined by activity, and there is no way to know how many molecules or milligrams of protein are included


5

I'm actually not sure myself. If I were to use something, I would go with "Mitos'd" and "Meios'd". However, you may not win over many fans, depending on the audience. If it's with students or maybe a professor, you could get away with shortening the processes. If it's in any formal setting, be as precise and descriptive as possible. It's not a lot of ...


5

It seems to me that the difference is mainly semantic, although the aims of synthetic biology are undoubtedly more ambitious than those of genetic engineering in, say, the 80s and 90s. The Wikipedia page on genetic engineering has this definition of the difference: Synthetic biology is an emerging discipline that takes genetic engineering a step ...


5

How about "splicing fragments"? It might be easier to refer to them according to the mechanism of production.


5

Intelligence is something which has to have a definition, and there are many, but I would cautiously say no. The reason that I say this is because swarming behavior can be largely reproduced by a simple set of rules - matching distance to your neighbors and direction and speed as well. To me this really removes any intention or even conscious element to ...


4

My understanding is that synthetic biology is genetic engineering 2.0. The difference is in the approach. Whereas genetic engineering projects are usually ad hoc, synthetic biology aims to apply proper engineering principles such as standardisation, modularisation, and reusability. Synthetic biologists create and use libraries of standard parts that are ...


4

Cytokines is the general class of molecules to which chemokines, interferons, interleukins and others belong. Biologists dispute whether something is a hormone or a cytokine, but generally the consensus goes with if it's to do with immunology it's a cytokine or if the resting concentration is in the picomolar range, but that's a very rough distinction. ...


4

Bacterial biofilms are a bunch of bacteria that have attached themselves to a surface or to each other as a floating mat to form a solid phase community. Its not seen in the lab so much, but they are common in nature. The bacteria not only adhere to the surface, but each other through a matrix of polymers they secrete. The bacteria in a biofilm are ...


4

Neurotransmitters were classically the most specific in terms of demands on experimental demonstration (thus, the so-called "classical neurotransmitter") but the chief role of neurotransmitter is direct neuron-to-neuron communication via the synaptic cleft in which the post-synaptic neuron has channels that readily engage the neurotransmitter. Classical ...


4

Yes, the complement system is part of the innate immune system. It can be activated by the: classical pathway (activated through bound IgM and IgG molecules but also by DNA, collagen (both are usually not available freely outside of cells) and c-reactive protein) lectin pathway (activation by binding of mannose through the mannose binding lectin on the ...


4

"Frank dehydration" is not really a regular medical term. You can suspect this by using Google search with "frank dehydration" in quotes and site:gov (only 3 websites showing up) and site:edu (2 websites) operators. The term "frank dehydration" as an informal term can refer to "obvious," "actual," "test-confirmed" dehydration as opposed to feeling ...


4

According to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, it has had several official variations of that name over the years: Minute mouse virus Minute of mice virus MVM Virus Minute virus of mice Mice minute virus The current (2014) accepted name is: Rodent protoparvovirus 1 "Does it really matter?" As long as you write in full the name you're ...


3

(Reposting my comment as an answer since it seems to be what was required.) A DNA molecule that replicates independently of chromosomal DNA is an episome. By this definition a plasmid is (usually) an episome. If a plasmid integrates into a chromosome by some mechanism (as for example in Hfr strains of E. coli where the F plasmid is integrated) the plasmid ...


3

The "probe by background" interaction is the response of different probes as a function of background gene expression. For example, depending on which of the 6 backgrounds a probe is in, the drug response may go up or down. Probes as a function of background is probably easier to imagine than background as a function of probe (which is equally valid). For ...


3

Immunopanning is essentially an immunoprecipitation (IP) of cells using an antibody immobilized to a solid surface, like a cell culture plate. Conventionally, an IP is performed using small agarose or magnetic beads (~50 to 150μm in size) conjugated to an antibody or Protein A/G, and can pull down individual proteins, protein complexes, and/or nucleic acid ...



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