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Masked allele is a terminology that is sometimes used for recessive alleles, which should be suitable to your example. A common phrasing could be; "The wild type allele is masking the expression of the deleterious allele X.". For your particular example you could use: Deleterious mutations on the Y chromosome are more easily purged since they cannot be ...


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I'll have to disagree with Alan. If the plasmid is integrated into a chromosome it doesn't lose its episomal status. Actually the integration of the plasmid is a characteristic of an episome. This is a quote from this article: http://www.qub.ac.uk/mlpage/courses/level3/plasmidhistoryreview.pdf "... For a decade or more it was confused with ‘‘episome,’’ ...


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This phenomenon is described as regressive evolution (the loss of a phenotypic trait). There are several reasons why this occurs: Neutral mutations which become fixed through genetic drift. Positive selection of regressive mutations that are beneficial. Pleiotropic antagonism: positive selection for one trait may have the consequence of disrupting ...


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So-called "vestigial" features are defined in a post-hoc fashion as features which do not have a positive correlation with a population's fitness under its current living conditions. There are no special names for the evolutionary processes that lead to their loss, since they are exactly the same evolutionary processes that act upon any feature that has a ...


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I think recessive refuge is the term you are looking for (this is the best link I could find, sorry: https://quizlet.com/4176029/bio-experiment-1-and-2-flash-cards/)


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During the days when philosophers used to debate, they tended to regard reproduction as a feminine trait. So naturally organisms/cells capable of producing offspring are also given a feminine trait. The parent cell is often called the mother cell, and the daughter cells are so named because they eventually become mother cell themselves. I presume there ...


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Broad means wide as in a wide range. Normally, antibodies have one epitope they recognize, i.e., one specific target; they are said to have a narrow range of targets. Some antibodies, however, recognize multiple targets, i.e. the number of targets they recognize is larger and their target range is widened. They are said to have a broad ...


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In this context, "broad" is a buzzword, a piece of scientific jargon. It's a callback to Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies[1], bNAbs. The basic idea with bNAbs is that they target parts of viral proteins that tend not to mutate or change very much between individual strains of some particular virus. Edit: To clarify, I am not suggesting that an antibody ...


2

Everything you state is correct, except that I disagree with your statement that a "[...] virus variant itself is a protein, which is composed of peptides. A virus is typically composed of a protein capsule with genetic material on the inside. So technically, a virus is not a protein, but its outer shell is composed of proteins. Further, a protein does not ...


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I don't know if they are classified as organs, but basically, blood vessels match the criteria for being organs. Quoting SIU School of Medicine: Blood vessels are basically tubular organs found within other organs. Biology Reference states the same: Even the glands within the integument can be considered organs; any gland is primarily secretory ...


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The cardiovascular system is usually lumped together as an organ. So blood vessels would be included here but you are right in that this is a bit strange being that it includes the heart and the vasculature.


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If you read the lines immediately following your quoted line (on p.391, left column, last paragraph in the linked article) it becomes clear what relay competent means (and I quote): As a result, the cells sense and move toward a source of cAMP, and they relay the signal as well by secreting cAMP. [..] After about 8 h of starvation randomly located cells, ...


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In a liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, as analytes elute from the chromatographic column they are sprayed through a hypodermic needle maintained at a high potential difference relative to the mass spectrometer. Combination of this potential difference and the pH of the LC buffers causes the analyte molecules to pick charge. ...


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The term I was looking for was anautogeny, or an anautogenous insect. I had slightly confused the definition, with the actual definition being; 'a gravid female insect that requires a blood meal before oviposition'.


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As far as I know, and the same is written on Farlex Free Dictionary, the upper extremity or superior limb includes: the shoulder girdle the arm the forearm the hand Again, on this Dartmouth Medical School page, the upper limb bones are described and the article includes the bones of the hand. So, anatomically speaking, the upper limb includes the hand.



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