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If in reference to the prehistoric groups of fish of the respective classifications, ostracoderms would have had a bony head much like a shell, and placoderms had articulated plates covering the head/thoracic area. The differences are relatively straightforward, see the wikipedia pages for each: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ostracoderm ...


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I think that the rest of the paragraph that you left out of your quotation helps to clarify. The CHO have 21 chromosomes, while the somatic lung cells have 23. Neither case is exact for Chinese Hamsters, 2n = 22. So they have almost the complement of chromosomes that a diploid Chinese hamster somatic cell would have but they are missing one or have one ...


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In immunology, determinant is another name for epitope (the portion of an antigen recognized by a BCR/Ab or TCR).


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Blood group A expresses A antigens and anti-B antibodies etc etc, see the next figure: Taken from the wikipedia entry on blood groups.


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A chimeric gene is formed from fragments of other genes whereas a fusion gene is formed from the entirety of other genes. Often in the literature you'll see the term fusion gene used for both cases.



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