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Absolutely not. In many spiders and insects, the female holds the territory. Many spiders for instance have much larger females than males - in these species the female can be > 10x bigger than the male and the male may not even eat during its lifetime. Ordinary garden orb weaving spiders are this sort of animal. Only the females even spin webs. ...


With some bacteria (e.g.. Bacillus subtilis) when food gets scarce they will start trying to kill their neighbors. (See this arstechnica article) This appears to be a fight to the death between children and parents. That's a kind of territorial behavior, selectively applied only when there are not enough resources to go around. As there is no "recognition" ...


Both sexes of red squirrels defend exclusive year round territories. See Smith 1968 or Steele 1998.

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