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I really good intro to evolution book is The Evolution of Vertebrate Design by Leonard Radinski. Also, for a more math based approach you could look into Narrow Roads of Gene Land. These are collected papers of W.D Hamilton.


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You either want a introductory book in evolutionary biology or a book that provide models/formulations of evolutionary processes In my first class of evolutionary biology I had this textbook: Futuyama, Evolution I think it gives a good start to the field and offers a good overview of the difference subfields. If you think you already knows enough about the ...


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Most of us have had the apoptotic process in our B-lymphocytes disrupted when we had infectious mononucleosis, caused by the EBV virus. The EBV virus (pardon the virus-virus) encodes proteins, including one that mimics a host cell protein, Bcl-2, which plays an important role in apoptosis. The set of virus 'decoy' proteins forces the infected cell to ...


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Lot's of ways. Apoptosis is complex, but falls under two pathways ending up at caspase 3. Anywhere in the pathway may there be a problem but also in things that trigger the pathway. For example in cancer there is loss of tumour suppressors which ensure a damaged cell undergoes apoptosis or prevents replication and oncogenes which allow controlled ...


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Measuring the electrical signals (=nerve signals) from the heart is frequently done in medicine, it is called electrocardiography. It looks like this (from the same article): Influencing the heartbear can also be done and is done by pacemakers. Depending on the patients necessities the can permanently stimulate the heart or do this only, when certain ...



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