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The free energy change that you quote for the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) forward reaction is, of course, the standard free energy change (ΔG0') for the overall reaction. The standard free energy change is defined for all reactants at a concentration of 1M. Note that this value includes the formation of ATP - the free energy of hydrolysis of 1,3-BPG ...


1

You have to look at the complete reaction including the cofactors. In general, you can drive a chemical reaction into directions which are not favorable by: removing products from the environment (if they are gaseous for example or react further) having a huge excess of substrates (and thus making the back reaction less likely to happen) and by coupling ...


5

The term "irreversible" means that the reverse reaction occurs so rarely that it is considered negligible. This means that you do not have to consider equilibrium, as you have to for reversible reactions. Instead, you can assume that all of the reactants will eventually become product. As you stated, this is true for reactions that have a very negative ...



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