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22

I’ll answer this theoretically, since that’s how it has been posed. And if we’re ignoring practicalities, we may as well posit that the substance in question will be introduced directly into the bloodstream (This is, of course, simple to do in reality, but not how most people consume their non-toxic substances.) The easiest way to show that any unspecified ...


20

Pigs and swine are so poisonous that you can hardly kill them with strychnine or other poisons. This is a non-sequitur. An animal being poisonous does not imply that it resists to poison, nor the reverse is true. In any case, to the extent of my knowledge pigs do not produce any specific poison. Obviously, if you could provide a more specific claim, ...


18

The confusion arises from the term weak, which has only to be interpreted in chemical terms. Weak acid, as you say, just means that the acid does not readily dissociate, not that its effects are weak! Just to say one, HF corrodes glass, something that not even smoking HCl does. Wikipedia has a nice summary of HF toxicity (see also the references in the ...


16

Yes. Taking antibiotics (and by extension antivirals and antineoplastics) at low doses is dangerous, as this creates an evolutionary pressure to evolve antibiotic resistance (or rather, incorporate through horizontal gene transfer). This is dangerous because an infection resulting from these bacteria will then be harder to treat. In the paper "Experimental ...


16

Gasoline toxicity through ingestions seems to be a topic where there's not a great deal of in-depth information available. I don't know how this works for chronic use, as most literature refers to acute scenarios. Either way, orally ingested, 30-50g is said to be toxic to humans while 350g can be fatal.[3]. So... Gasoline's Constituents A lot of ...


14

The more "dangerous" properties of spicy peppers are chiefly due to capsaicin. Sigma-Aldrich sells purified capsaicin, for which they provide safety information, including an MSDS. Most of it is the usual, unsurprising set of warnings about irritation to eyes and the respiratory system. However, there are LD50 numbers: LD50 Oral - rat - male - 161.2 ...


14

Short answer Many snake poisons target specific proteins not present in unicellular organisms. Background The question is admittedly broad but the idea behind this question is pretty much what you indicate in your post - many venoms target specific proteins and do not simply destroy their target by, e.g., disrupting gross cellular structure (like alcohol ...


13

The situation is definitely an extremely complex one, and you should probably forget about having an exact equation to define it. When talking about the effects of a substance on the organism there are several factors to take into account. These are generally put together under the term pharmacodynamics. Some of the factor to take into account are: The ...


10

First of all: Yes, fluoride is toxic, but the toxicity depends largely on the form (soluble vs. unsoluble, which fluoride salt etc.) occurs. It also depends on the environment since insoluble salts which are subjected to strong acids can release fluorine ions. The certain toxic dose for adults is 32-64mg/kg body weight, a 75kg adult needs to take up between ...


9

First, we need to understand that neurons have special proteins embedded in their membranes called ion channels. These allow dissolved ions such as sodium, potassium, and calcium to pass from one side of the membrane to the other. Neurons use these channels to control their electrical activity. Peptide neurotoxins such as the one produced by funnel spiders ...


9

This question asks about the urinary excretion of THC. Before answering the question I think you're getting at, I'll first note that cannabinoids (of which THC is one) are primarily metabolized by hepatic cytochromes rather than being excreted directly. This article is a classical pharmacokinetic paper on the topic if you’re able to access it; this one is a ...


9

It depends largely on the method of administration. If you are atomizing the substance and delivering it via water vapor, many, many substances have no known LDLo (lowest dose required to kill a member of the tested population). Almost any substance in existence has the potential to kill you if it is diluting your bloodstream via direct intravenous injection ...


8

Just to add an answer to the 'how does the body process gasoline?' portion of the question, the liver and kidney would be doing most of the work of removing the stuff from the system once it was absorbed in the digestive tract. The liver does most of the processing of toxins and their removal from the blood and would tend to do the most work in removing ...


8

I think its useful to say that nicotine is not very toxic to humans - cells don't die or get sick for typical smoking habits. Secondary health effects are possible, but here is a toxicological profiles. Nicotine is a toxin in large enough quantities and nicotine has an LD50 (lethal dose for 50% of individuals) of 0.5-1 mg Nicotine / kg of body weight. So ...


7

This write up by Carl Zimmer basically covers anything I could have said. He links to a number of resources, in particular this pdf, which at a cursory glance looks utterly fascinating and very well done. Figure 1 in that pdf sums it all up, I guess, or to quote Carl: "Each lineage of venomous animals became deadly on its own, independent of all the ...


7

Clostridium botulinum toxin is present ubiquitously in soil. As such it is more than plausible that hay bails, which come into contact with soil can and I should expect almost probably will be infected with these bacteria. However it is not the mere presence of the bacteria itself which causes poisoning, it is the toxins they produce when the appropriate ...


7

The stinging hairs (trichomes) of the common North American nettle (Urtica dioica) are sharp, pointed cells. These nucleated cells are embedded in a base of smaller epidermal cells. The shaft of the trichome is composed of silica. Upon touch, the tip breaks off, leaving a sharp tip similar to a hypodermic needle. The hollow trichome penetrates the skin, and ...


6

This is a bit of a news flash - the answer is probably yes. Reading through recent Nature articles this one popped up: Toxicology the learning curve. Where there are some intriguing examples of low concentration only toxic effects. It might be worth a read. The preface gives a review of the idea, going back to the 16th century physician Paracelcius ...


6

Is consumption of blood more "dangerous" compared to meat? Actually yes, a simple high dose of blood is enough to kill. The cause is, though it is most important thing to live when flowing the vessel, it's highly toxic when consumed. There are high chances of getting haemochromatosis or Iron overload. Source and More on this: ...


6

The problem is that box jellyfish doesn't specify one jellyfish but a group of different jellyfish. Some of these are highly venomous - I pick here Chironex fleckeri, as this is often called "the most venomous jellyfish in the world". Chironex fleckeri has long tentacles which are covered with millions of explosive cells called Cnidocytes which inject a ...


6

There is a problem with definition of toxicity — things that are dangerous in large amounts aren't usually called toxic. In spite of this, you're right: everything can be dangerous to a human in large enough amounts, or if delivered improperly. For example, even water can be toxic if drank too much. Also, when it gets into the lungs, it may cause ...


5

Nicotine acts as a ligand for nicotinic acetycholine receptors (nAChRs), which are ligand-gated ion channels normally activated by acetylcholine. This family of receptors is expressed in every mammalian cell (Schuller, 2009). A priori, at least to me, I'd suggest that it's a bad idea to chronically introduce a foreign substance that mimics the activity of an ...


5

No. The influence of dose–response relationship on toxicity is one of the fundamental properties of (bio)chemistry, and follows directly from the fact that concentration influences the reaction rate: a chemical reaction between two or more agents is a stochastic process where agents have a certain chance of interacting based on physical proximity (and other ...


5

Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of n-hexane (>1,000 ppm) has resulted in decreased sperm count and degenerative changes in the testes of rats but not those of mice. Acute Data: Gasoline: Dermal LD50>5 ml/kg (Rabbit) LC50> 4500 ppm (Rat) Oral LD50= 18.75 ml/kg. (Rat) Carcinogenicity: Two year inhalation studies of wholly vaporized unleaded gasoline ...


5

As to the subject line, yes, lipid substances or any non-polar small molecule will enter the skin cells and the body below. The reason is because cell membranes simply consist of fatty substance that behaves like a solvent for other lipids. As to the specific question about this product, Monovin A. This is a veterinary product and the producer, Laboratórios ...


5

This question appears to have a revived interest? I would like to clarify this Q&A you don't mind. HF(aq), like other hydrogen halides, does completely give up its proton to $\ce{H2O}$ but since F is the most eletronegative element on earth, it will pair up with hydronium ion in the aqueous environment, making the proton "less available", at least to a ...


5

The US Department of Health and Human Services has a nice set of factsheets on aluminum. In brief, and to specifically answer your questions, they point out that: Aluminum occurs naturally in air, water, soil, and plants. The amounts of aluminum that we encounter in pots and pans are considered to be safe for healthy people. Cooking acidic foods in ...


5

As an addendum to Spinorial's answer, and after some research, the Center for Food Security and Public Health specifically lists hay / grass / decaying vegetable matter as a potential source for C. botulinum growth in their (very informative) Botulism PDF. All species of Clostridium can produce spores, dormant forms of the organism that are ...


5

First: There is no biological reason to not eat pork. These bans (Jewish and Islamic) are based on religious rules, so this is more a cultural, not so much a biological answer. The reasoning that pork meat would deteriorate pretty fast in warm climates is true, but it is also true for all other sorts of meat (like cattle, goat or sheep). Besides cultural ...


5

Teflon is a polymer of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and related compounds. PFOA is thought to be a carcinogen. I think there's an urban legend that if you really heat teflon up or burn it (it doesn't burn as flouroxides are not stable in air) that you might get some of the constituent chemicals out into the air. Once the flourocarbons are polymerized ...



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