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20

Pigs and swine are so poisonous that you can hardly kill them with strychnine or other poisons. This is a non-sequitur. An animal being poisonous does not imply that it resists to poison, nor the reverse is true. In any case, to the extent of my knowledge pigs do not produce any specific poison. Obviously, if you could provide a more specific claim, ...


16

Gasoline toxicity through ingestions seems to be a topic where there's not a great deal of in-depth information available. I don't know how this works for chronic use, as most literature refers to acute scenarios. Either way, orally ingested, 30-50g is said to be toxic to humans while 350g can be fatal.[3]. So... Gasoline's Constituents A lot of ...


13

The situation is definitely an extremely complex one, and you should probably forget about having an exact equation to define it. When talking about the effects of a substance on the organism there are several factors to take into account. These are generally put together under the term pharmacodynamics. Some of the factor to take into account are: The ...


13

The more "dangerous" properties of spicy peppers are chiefly due to capsaicin. Sigma-Aldrich sells purified capsaicin, for which they provide safety information, including an MSDS. Most of it is the usual, unsurprising set of warnings about irritation to eyes and the respiratory system. However, there are LD50 numbers: LD50 Oral - rat - male - 161.2 ...


12

Yes. Taking antibiotics (and by extension antivirals and antineoplastics) at low doses is dangerous, as this creates an evolutionary pressure to evolve antibiotic resistance (or rather, incorporate through horizontal gene transfer). This is dangerous because an infection resulting from these bacteria will then be harder to treat. In the paper "Experimental ...


11

The confusion arises from the term weak, which has only to be interpreted in chemical terms. Weak acid, as you say, just means that the acid does not readily dissociates, not that its effect are weak! Just to say one, HF corrodes glass, something that not even smoking HCl does. Wikipedia has a nice summary of HF toxicity (see also the references in the ...


10

First of all: Yes, fluoride is toxic, but the toxicity depends largely on the form (soluble vs. unsoluble, which fluoride salt etc.) occurs. It also depends on the environment since insoluble salts which are subjected to strong acids can release fluorine ions. The certain toxic dose for adults is 32-64mg/kg body weight, a 75kg adult needs to take up between ...


8

I think its useful to say that nicotine is not very toxic to humans - cells don't die or get sick for typical smoking habits. Secondary health effects are possible, but here is a toxicological profiles. Nicotine is a toxin in large enough quantities and nicotine has an LD50 (lethal dose for 50% of individuals) of 0.5-1 mg Nicotine / kg of body weight. So ...


8

Just to add an answer to the 'how does the body process gasoline?' portion of the question, the liver and kidney would be doing most of the work of removing the stuff from the system once it was absorbed in the digestive tract. The liver does most of the processing of toxins and their removal from the blood and would tend to do the most work in removing ...


7

This write up by Carl Zimmer basically covers anything I could have said. He links to a number of resources, in particular this pdf, which at a cursory glance looks utterly fascinating and very well done. Figure 1 in that pdf sums it all up, I guess, or to quote Carl: "Each lineage of venomous animals became deadly on its own, independent of all the ...


7

First, we need to understand that neurons have special proteins embedded in their membranes called ion channels. These allow dissolved ions such as sodium, potassium, and calcium to pass from one side of the membrane to the other. Neurons use these channels to control their electrical activity. Peptide neurotoxins such as the one produced by funnel spiders ...


7

Clostridium botulinum toxin is present ubiquitously in soil. As such it is more than plausible that hay bails, which come into contact with soil can and I should expect almost probably will be infected with these bacteria. However it is not the mere presence of the bacteria itself which causes poisoning, it is the toxins they produce when the appropriate ...


6

Is consumption of blood more "dangerous" compared to meat? Actually yes, a simple high dose of blood is enough to kill. The cause is, though it is most important thing to live when flowing the vessel, it's highly toxic when consumed. There are high chances of getting haemochromatosis or Iron overload. Source and More on this: ...


5

The US Department of Health and Human Services has a nice set of factsheets on aluminum. In brief, and to specifically answer your questions, they point out that: Aluminum occurs naturally in air, water, soil, and plants. The amounts of aluminum that we encounter in pots and pans are considered to be safe for healthy people. Cooking acidic foods in ...


5

As to the subject line, yes, lipid substances or any non-polar small molecule will enter the skin cells and the body below. The reason is because cell membranes simply consist of fatty substance that behaves like a solvent for other lipids. As to the specific question about this product, Monovin A. This is a veterinary product and the producer, Laboratórios ...


5

Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of n-hexane (>1,000 ppm) has resulted in decreased sperm count and degenerative changes in the testes of rats but not those of mice. Acute Data: Gasoline: Dermal LD50>5 ml/kg (Rabbit) LC50> 4500 ppm (Rat) Oral LD50= 18.75 ml/kg. (Rat) Carcinogenicity: Two year inhalation studies of wholly vaporized unleaded gasoline ...


5

No. The influence of dose–response relationship on toxicity is one of the fundamental properties of (bio)chemistry, and follows directly from the fact that concentration influences the reaction rate: a chemical reaction between two or more agents is a stochastic process where agents have a certain chance of interacting based on physical proximity (and other ...


5

Nicotine acts as a ligand for nicotinic acetycholine receptors (nAChRs), which are ligand-gated ion channels normally activated by acetylcholine. This family of receptors is expressed in every mammalian cell (Schuller, 2009). A priori, at least to me, I'd suggest that it's a bad idea to chronically introduce a foreign substance that mimics the activity of an ...


5

As an addendum to Spinorial's answer, and after some research, the Center for Food Security and Public Health specifically lists hay / grass / decaying vegetable matter as a potential source for C. botulinum growth in their (very informative) Botulism PDF. All species of Clostridium can produce spores, dormant forms of the organism that are ...


5

First: There is no biological reason to not eat pork. These bans (Jewish and Islamic) are based on religious rules, so this is more a cultural, not so much a biological answer. The reasoning that pork meat would deteriorate pretty fast in warm climates is true, but it is also true for all other sorts of meat (like cattle, goat or sheep). Besides cultural ...


5

Teflon is a polymer of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and related compounds. PFOA is thought to be a carcinogen. I think there's an urban legend that if you really heat teflon up or burn it (it doesn't burn as flouroxides are not stable in air) that you might get some of the constituent chemicals out into the air. Once the flourocarbons are polymerized ...


4

If you ask Dr. Duke's phytochemical database, by far the most solanine is found in green potatoe fruits (their skin), with much less in leaves and tissues. Similar values are seen in green tomatoes, with dozens of mg per 100g fruit. There is no value for Solanum dulcamara (doesn't mean there is nothing in it) but it appears to have small quantities of ...


4

This is a bit of a news flash - the answer is probably yes. Reading through recent Nature articles this one popped up: Toxicology the learning curve. Where there are some intriguing examples of low concentration only toxic effects. It might be worth a read. The preface gives a review of the idea, going back to the 16th century physician Paracelcius ...


4

Much like Daniel Standage suggests, I think "edible" is more inferried than defined, sort of like looking at a black hole - its absence is defined by the activity around it. Human bodies are capable of metabolizing lots of compounds that become poisonous pass some threshold. In medical terms there are LDmin and MLD and LD50: miminum Lethal Dose, Median ...


4

As far as I know, edibility (wow, I'm surprised that passes the spell checker!) is not a strictly defined term, biologically or otherwise. Humans have been around eating and drinking stuff long before the scientific method was around to study this question rigorously, and before there were regulatory agencies charged with approving new products as "safe." As ...


4

Monstera deliciosa seems to fit the bill. From Wikipedia: This member of the arum family Araceae is an epiphyte with aerial roots... Wild seedlings grow towards the darkest area they can find until they find a tree trunk, then start to grow up towards the light, creeping up the tree.[6][dead reference link] Fruit The fruit of ...


4

Gastric lavage only washes out ("lavages") the stomach ("gastrium"). Gastric emptying time is generally ~60-120 min, probably on the lower end of that for ingested liquids. After that amount of time, most of the toxic substance will be beyond the level of the pyloric sphincter (i.e. in the duodenum) and not accessible to lavage. The second question is not ...


3

In humans, cysteine first fills the glutathione pool (which itself is a reservoir for cysteine, apart from reduction equivalents and biotransformation). Excess cysteine can go three ways, oxidation to sulfoalanine and further hypotaurine and taurine, via still unknown enzyme(s) degradation to lanthionine and toxic H2S degradation to serine and toxic H2S ...


3

The biochemical mechanism of BT is pretty well laid out at Wikipedia already. The toxin is likely very potent because (1) it is targeted to neurons; (2) neurons endocytose BT; and (3) the BT light chain's protease activity is able to cleave a wide range of SNARE-complex proteins which effectively disrupt the neurons ability to secrete monoamine ...


3

These poisons prevent recirculation of vitamin K and thus formation of prothrombin which is essential for coagulation of blood and are required for maintaining the integrity of capillaries. The depletion of vitamin K is slow and in a couple of days internal hemorrhage occurs extensively and the animal dies of shock. Early recognition of poisoning in humans ...



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