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16

Gasoline toxicity through ingestions seems to be a topic where there's not a great deal of in-depth information available. I don't know how this works for chronic use, as most literature refers to acute scenarios. Either way, orally ingested, 30-50g is said to be toxic to humans while 350g can be fatal.[3]. So... Gasoline's Constituents A lot of ...


12

The situation is definitely an extremely complex one, and you should probably forget about having an exact equation to define it. When talking about the effects of a substance on the organism there are several factors to take into account. These are generally put together under the term pharmacodynamics. Some of the factor to take into account are: The ...


11

The confusion arises from the term weak, which has only to be interpreted in chemical terms. Weak acid, as you say, just means that the acid does not readily dissociates, not that its effect are weak! Just to say one, HF corrodes glass, something that not even smoking HCl does. Wikipedia has a nice summary of HF toxicity (see also the references in the ...


11

Yes. Taking antibiotics (and by extension antivirals and antineoplastics) at low doses is dangerous, as this creates an evolutionary pressure to evolve antibiotic resistance (or rather, incorporate through horizontal gene transfer). This is dangerous because an infection resulting from these bacteria will then be harder to treat. In the paper "Experimental ...


8

I think its useful to say that nicotine is not very toxic to humans - cells don't die or get sick for typical smoking habits. Secondary health effects are possible, but here is a toxicological profiles. Nicotine is a toxin in large enough quantities and nicotine has an LD50 (lethal dose for 50% of individuals) of 0.5-1 mg Nicotine / kg of body weight. So ...


8

Just to add an answer to the 'how does the body process gasoline?' portion of the question, the liver and kidney would be doing most of the work of removing the stuff from the system once it was absorbed in the digestive tract. The liver does most of the processing of toxins and their removal from the blood and would tend to do the most work in removing ...


7

First, we need to understand that neurons have special proteins embedded in their membranes called ion channels. These allow dissolved ions such as sodium, potassium, and calcium to pass from one side of the membrane to the other. Neurons use these channels to control their electrical activity. Peptide neurotoxins such as the one produced by funnel spiders ...


5

The US Department of Health and Human Services has a nice set of factsheets on aluminum. In brief, and to specifically answer your questions, they point out that: Aluminum occurs naturally in air, water, soil, and plants. The amounts of aluminum that we encounter in pots and pans are considered to be safe for healthy people. Cooking acidic foods in ...


5

As to the subject line, yes, lipid substances or any non-polar small molecule will enter the skin cells and the body below. The reason is because cell membranes simply consist of fatty substance that behaves like a solvent for other lipids. As to the specific question about this product, Monovin A. This is a veterinary product and the producer, Laboratórios ...


5

Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of n-hexane (>1,000 ppm) has resulted in decreased sperm count and degenerative changes in the testes of rats but not those of mice. Acute Data: Gasoline: Dermal LD50>5 ml/kg (Rabbit) LC50> 4500 ppm (Rat) Oral LD50= 18.75 ml/kg. (Rat) Carcinogenicity: Two year inhalation studies of wholly vaporized unleaded gasoline ...


5

No. The influence of dose–response relationship on toxicity is one of the fundamental properties of (bio)chemistry, and follows directly from the fact that concentration influences the reaction rate: a chemical reaction between two or more agents is a stochastic process where agents have a certain chance of interacting based on physical proximity (and other ...


5

Nicotine acts as a ligand for nicotinic acetycholine receptors (nAChRs), which are ligand-gated ion channels normally activated by acetylcholine. This family of receptors is expressed in every mammalian cell (Schuller, 2009). A priori, at least to me, I'd suggest that it's a bad idea to chronically introduce a foreign substance that mimics the activity of an ...


4

If you ask Dr. Duke's phytochemical database, by far the most solanine is found in green potatoe fruits (their skin), with much less in leaves and tissues. Similar values are seen in green tomatoes, with dozens of mg per 100g fruit. There is no value for Solanum dulcamara (doesn't mean there is nothing in it) but it appears to have small quantities of ...


4

This is a bit of a news flash - the answer is probably yes. Reading through recent Nature articles this one popped up: Toxicology the learning curve. Where there are some intriguing examples of low concentration only toxic effects. It might be worth a read. The preface gives a review of the idea, going back to the 16th century physician Paracelcius ...


4

Much like Daniel Standage suggests, I think "edible" is more inferried than defined, sort of like looking at a black hole - its absence is defined by the activity around it. Human bodies are capable of metabolizing lots of compounds that become poisonous pass some threshold. In medical terms there are LDmin and MLD and LD50: miminum Lethal Dose, Median ...


4

As far as I know, edibility (wow, I'm surprised that passes the spell checker!) is not a strictly defined term, biologically or otherwise. Humans have been around eating and drinking stuff long before the scientific method was around to study this question rigorously, and before there were regulatory agencies charged with approving new products as "safe." As ...


4

This write up by Carl Zimmer basically covers anything I could have said. He links to a number of resources, in particular this pdf, which at a cursory glance looks utterly fascinating and very well done. Figure 1 in that pdf sums it all up, I guess, or to quote Carl: "Each lineage of venomous animals became deadly on its own, independent of all the ...


3

Assuming the answer can't be C) Stainless Steel I would go with Aluminum. The USDA specifically mandates (1) stainless steel 300: "Milk contact surfaces shall be made of stainless steel of the 300 series, equally corrosion-resistant non-toxic metals or heat-resistant glass." Is the copper tinned? From what I can tell after reading some old ...


3

Here's a quick answer; hopefully someone will give a more complete one. But meanwhile you've got something. Some genotoxic agents have predictable results. For example, they cause Gs to substitute for Cs, or they cause mutations at specific spots on the genome. So if you had a bunch of mutations in a single cell (or collection of related cells) that ...


3

In humans, cysteine first fills the glutathione pool (which itself is a reservoir for cysteine, apart from reduction equivalents and biotransformation). Excess cysteine can go three ways, oxidation to sulfoalanine and further hypotaurine and taurine, via still unknown enzyme(s) degradation to lanthionine and toxic H2S degradation to serine and toxic H2S ...


2

The biochemical mechanism of BT is pretty well laid out at Wikipedia already. The toxin is likely very potent because (1) it is targeted to neurons; (2) neurons endocytose BT; and (3) the BT light chain's protease activity is able to cleave a wide range of SNARE-complex proteins which effectively disrupt the neurons ability to secrete monoamine ...


2

The short answer is: unless you burn the sample completely to ashes, you cannot be sure you destroyed all BT particles. Denaturation is a naturally occuring process and it works pretty much like radioactive decay. It happens over time, so if you had a solution of BT without any bacteria or spores and left it at room temperature, after some (very long) time ...


2

Perhaps someone else can answer this with more certainty, but I'd guess that because raphides are essentially sharp crystals that cause irritation-related symptoms, rather than toxic chemicals in the way one might usually think of them, that drinking the water wouldn't pose a problem (actually, I suppose the word "insoluble" might be a clue here). Raphides ...


2

The Internet says that platypus venom can kill small animals, but I haven't come up with a definitive source for this. There is an informative Wikipedia page about the venom here. Basically the venom contains a number of toxic peptides including a family of C-type natriuretic peptides, some defensin-like peptides and nerve growth factor. Defensins are very ...


2

Colchicine inhibits the formation of the microtubules by binding to tubilin and rendering it unavailable for the polymerization. Thats why the cells get arrested in the metaphase and can not go on further in the cell cycle and divide. For chromosome studies this is very useful since this is the phase where the chromatin is most condensed and can be viewed ...


2

cyanide binds cytochrome oxidase so as to prevent the binding of oxygen. Electron transport is reduced to zero,you can't use any of the oxygen you take in,Breathe as much oxygen you want .Cytochrome oxidase is one of a superfamily of proteins which act as the terminal enzymes of respiratory chains,so if the cyanide is binding to the cytochrome then it ...


2

These poisons prevent recirculation of vitamin K and thus formation of prothrombin which is essential for coagulation of blood and are required for maintaining the integrity of capillaries. The depletion of vitamin K is slow and in a couple of days internal hemorrhage occurs extensively and the animal dies of shock. Early recognition of poisoning in humans ...


1

I'm not a metallurgist, which you should probably ask... but there is this that I found: Low Melting Fusible Alloys Both Cadmium and Lead are toxic, but Bismuth, Indium, and Tin are not. An alloy of those might be what you're looking for. Indium raises the price-point considerably, as it's a few magnitudes more expensive than Bismuth and Tin.


1

After crossing the blood-brain barrier, toluene, along with other volatile anesthetic agents, had been previously thought to inhibit neuronal transmission by causing a change in membrane or membrane protein conformation. Recent research has shown that interactions with several key brain neurotransmitters, mainly γ-aminobutyric acidA (GABA), to a lessor ...


1

A quick search for a list of LD50 (median lethal dose; half of the people will die with that dosage) gave me 1 ng/kg for Botulinum toxin. This is pretty darn small amount, and in fact the smallest amount within that table.



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