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When exploring whether nicotine is toxic to humans, the discussion isn't complete without the inclusion of non-adult humans / humans-in-development. Nicotine is toxic to humans beginning at conception. Nicotine has adverse effects on sperm, making them malformed, less likely to fertilize eggs, and making the embryos they do create less likely to survive. ...


In general, xenobiotic biotransformation (i.e. processing the xenobiotics aka drugs - detoxing the body) is accomplished by a limited number of enzymes with broad substrate specificities. In humans, for example, two cytochrome P450 enzymes— namely,CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 — metabolise over half the orally administered drugs currently used. (Gonzalez and Tukey,2006). ...

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