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Short answer If you understand why hydrophylic compounds can be excreted, than it's kind of straightforward why hydrophobic ones can't - because they are not hydrophylic. Background The kidneys, through the production and excretion of urine, are the major gateway of clearing the body from toxins. Some toxins absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract can be ...


you are correct that these grapes have raphides. After doing some research, I found out that the grape raphides are twinned crystals. Raphides can cause much irritation for many herbivores (therefore, it is a protection mechanism) but less so for humans. In grapes, however, the irritation is much less than other raphide-containing species. This probably has ...

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