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Alberts et al, Molecular Biology of the Cell, say that eukaryotic ribosomes add about 2 amino acids per second, and bacterial about 20 per second (5th edition, p 275). These should be taken only as ballpark estimates: the rate certainly will vary from species to species, from cell to cell, from protein to protein. Some cells (reticulocytes, for instance) are ...


There are several hypotheses about the evolution of dominance. It is important first of all, to note that empirical observations show that beneficial alleles tend to be more dominant than detrimental alleles. Among the two main hypotheses to explain the evolution of dominance, one has been formulated by Ronald Fisher and one by Sewall Wright. Fisher's ...

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