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2

Antigenic drift in the coding portions of the genes that involve antibody binding sites accounts for the seasonal variability of flu strains, i.e. they mutated enough that the antigens require new antibodies, hence a new strain. The process is as you said constant, like evolution, and in an analysis of pandemic H1N1 the authors are able to note 1 - 18.1 ...


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If you want a shorter version, but with some key terminology in there, here you go: When the body is exposed to an antigen (a substance that stimulates an immune response), antigen-presenting cells (e.g. macrophages) engulf them and present them on the surface of their cell membrane. Then, T cells bind to it and in short, they eventually get activated. Then ...


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This is a typical theme brought up by the anti-vaccine movement. In short: There are no serious side-effects of the MMR vaccine and certainly do not cause brain damage. The NHS info on this vaccination lists a few mild and short-lived side-effects: Common side effects of the MMR vaccine About a week to 11 days after the MMR injection, some children ...


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Here's a short and simplified explanation. The antibodies that arise in a flu infection are more "intended" to prevent future infections than to clear the present infection. Infections drive T cell responses as well as antibody responses, and the T cells appear a little earlier (peaking at maybe a week) and are probably very useful for clearing the ...


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Most information here can be found broadly in Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 8th Ed. Here's how the flu vaccine works: Scientists forecast months in advance which strains they think stand to cause the most problems. The vaccine is often trivalent, protecting against three different strains on flu: Two influenza A and one influenza B. You can read about ...


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If you became infected before the advent of vaccination, you would either live or die. You would also probably die with really good odds. Being said, someone who lived a disease developed immunologic tolerance to the causative agent, that much you could begin to understand. To expose someone to smallpox was to really endanger their lives, so they found that ...



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