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Smith et al. (2009) provide a survey of the morphology of the cecal appendix. One current hypothesis is that the appendix provides "safe harbor" for symbiotic gut bacteria. Among mammals, there is a vast array of cecal appendices: In summary: A comparative anatomical approach reveals three apparent morphotypes of the cecal appendix, as well as ...


9

The link you give doesn't mention limbs sticking out of the body wall, but only vestigial hind limb elements. Many whales do retain pelves and femora, as this page at the Bergen Museum shows. Given the variation in limb development across vertebrates, it would not be surprising to find more distal elements (but I would be very surprised if they extended past ...


7

Aside from humans, it is largely rodents and most notably rabbits that have an appendix. Therefore, using rabbits as my example: In rabbits, the appendix is thought to have a key role in the development of the immune system. Specifically it has been shown experimentally that when neonatal rabbits are given an appendectomy levels of Immunoglobulin A and G ...


6

The appendix was thought to be vestigial in humans until recently. Now it appears that, like rabbits, it is a safe harbour for symbiotic bacteria in the intestines. Source: Bollinger, Barbas, Bush, et al. J Theor Biol. 2007 Dec 21;249(4):826-31. Epub 2007 Sep 7.


3

From this article I quote Hair in the nose is one of the body's first lines of defense against harmful environmental pathogens such as germs, fungus, and spores. Another purpose for nose hair is to provide additional humidity to the inhaled air. As the air passes through the nasal passages, the mucus and hair provide heat and moisture. ...


1

Yes there are several published sources (with photos) of whales born with protruding vestigial legs. http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/dspace/bitstream/handle/2246/4849/N0009.pdf;jsessionid=55D6453968F5461B1B6BFF8D53C81F16?sequence=1 Modern Right Whales have rudimentary legs--completely inside their bodies. "approaching the inquiry with the most skeptical ...



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