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Interesting question. But from a philosophical point of view - What does upside down mean on a flat cortical surface? The fact that the retinal input is flipped does not mean it has to be 'de-flipped' in the cortex. There are retinotopic projections to the cortex that code corresponding parts in the retina. It needs no flipping.


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It is not the wavelength or frequency that determines light absorption- it is the energy of the photon that matters. The energy of incident light should match the excitation energy of the chromophore. The medium itself can also affect light absorption by electronically interacting with the chromophore. Wavelength plays a role in diffraction and therefore ...


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Wavelength-frequency relation is $\lambda=\frac{c}{\nu}$ or $\nu\cdot \lambda=c$ in vacuum. In some refractive media you can substitute $c$ with speed of light at corresponding medium, essentially nothing changes. Speed determines the product of wavelength and frequency, not their ratio, as you suggested. Hence at different speeds frequency and wavelength ...


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In the context of human vision, wavelength and frequency are not mutually exclusive, but given by the first equation you pointed out in the question. That is, whenever the range of human vision is given they are not assuming that wavelength and frequency can change independently.



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