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The center-surround structure is created by the horizontal connectivity of the horizontal cells (Periman et al., 2012) that receive input from multiple photoreceptors (Fig. 1). Fig. 1. Retinal patch showing the connectivity between a horizontal cell and photoreceptors. Source: Harvey Mudd College The horizontal cell passes on the congregate output to the ...


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It seems like you suffer from a misconception. "The left eye sees more of the left side of an object..." is not how distance perception works. Otherwise we wouldn't be able to estimate the distance from flat objects, such as traffic signs and shooting targets. The actual mechanism is parallax estimation, or Binocular disparity. In a nutshell, the closer an ...


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First off - both the rod and cone system measure light intensity; both sensory cells increase their responses when excited by more photons (Purves et al., 2001). Hence, your introductory sentence that rod detect luminescence and cones color is incorrect. They are both sensitive to luminescence. You are correct that rods detect gray scales, while cones ...


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Short answer Cones mediate the perception of white in photopic conditions. Rods mediate the perception of white in scotopic conditions. The rod system is not needed for cones to mediate white perception and vice versa. Background Cones code for red, green and blue. The remaining colors, as you rightfully state in the question, can be generated by mixing ...


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All mammals have exactly two eyes, though the eyes are vestigial in some species, some of which are even blind. Small fossorial (burrowing) mammals generally have very tiny externally visible eyes or eyes that are covered with skin (e.g. golden moles). Some river dolphins (e.g. "blind dolphins") also have very small, vestigial eyes. Some reptiles (and ...



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