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Humans do not produce Vitamin C due to a mutation in the GULO (gulonolactone oxidase) gene, which results in the inability to synthesize the protein. Normal GULO is an enzyme that catalyses the reaction of D-glucuronolactone with oxygen to L-xylo-hex-3-gulonolactone. This then spontaneously forms Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C). However without the GULO enzyme, ...


5

As to the subject line, yes, lipid substances or any non-polar small molecule will enter the skin cells and the body below. The reason is because cell membranes simply consist of fatty substance that behaves like a solvent for other lipids. As to the specific question about this product, Monovin A. This is a veterinary product and the producer, Laboratórios ...


5

The quantity of nutrients the body requires takes much more physical space than can be included in a simple pill or injection (used only a few times a day). But nutrition can be provided by IV (intravenous administration), and it is used today for some medical conditions. When the IV completely substitutes for normal digestion, it is called total ...


3

Vitamin A: One study conducted in the 60's claims that vitamin A acid prevents formation of comedones in Acne Vulgaris [1]. Another one conducted in the 70's found no significant improvement of plantar warts when vitamin A acid was applied topically [2]. Vitamin D: Agents like calcipotriene associated with topical steroids are effective against psoriazis ...


2

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a water-soluble vitamin required for homocysteine methyltransferase. In order to be absorbed, it must bind to intrinsic factor (IF), which is produced by the parietal cells of the stomach. The absorption of the vitamin B12-IF complex occurs in the terminal ileum (of the small intestine). The quote just means that if there isn't ...


2

Your shown homocysteine pathway is way too simple. Especially the production of the neuromodulator H2S from excess sulfur amino acids is not shown. In the last years many more enzymes and reactions have been discovered. I have summarized human sulfur amino acid metabolism in reactome.org, so please use this link to discover all the details and new papers. ...


2

I'm not sure if this answers your question, but I'll give it a try anyway. Here's a diagram of homocysteine metabolism. Vitamin B12 is a cofactor for homocysteine methyltransferase, and folic acid is required for tetrahydrofolate (THF). As both vitamins are involved in homocysteine metabolism, the symptoms of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency are similar. ...


2

The main effect, of vitamin B6, is neurological, becouse moderate variations in the intracellular concentration of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the biologically active form of vitamin B6, can have pronounced modulatory effects on steroid-induced gene expression. So you cannot get the effect of stress hormones. Also neurological damage has been reported ...


2

There seems to be no effect of vitamins. This paper ("Preventing cognitive decline in healthy older adults." found no evidence for herbal supplements, vitamins or fatty acids improve cognitive functions. There seems to be some evidence ("Preventing Alzheimer's disease-related gray matter atrophy by B-vitamin treatment.") that a cocktail of hig dosed ...


2

UV light promotes the photo-oxidation of ascorbic acid (AsA) to dehydroascorbic acid (DHA). DHA can be reduced to AsA by a specific dehydrogenase using reduced glutathione as reductant. I'm pretty sure that all cells are able to carry out this recycling of ascorbate. Interestingly, in plants it appears that ascorbate acts as an electron donor to ...


1

That is a rare condition that can only occur when taking too much doses of vitamin D. It has nothing to do with sun exposure. High levels of vitamin D stimulate hypercalcemia and all its negative consequences. It can also exacerbate liver and kidney chronic diseases. Reference: Katherine Zeratsky, What is vitamin D toxicity, and should I worry about it ...


1

According to one study: It was calculated that if the excretory percentage of niacin metabolites in the urine were 60%, of the tryptophan ingested, the conversion factor would be a value of 67, meaning that is 67 mg of tryptophan is equal to 1 mg of niacin. However, the study has a pretty low power with only 10 participants and an indirect measure of ...


1

If we assume the drink was very well blended most of the water-soluble vitamis (B and C) as well sugars could dissolve in the juice. Fiber would mostly remain in the plant debris. Oils and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) would form their own oily layer or be found in an emulsion with the fruit juice.



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