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Keep in mind that the citrate utilizing strain appeared after over a decade. Also, Escherichia coli could always metabolize citrate, but the citrate transporter that brings it into the cell is only expressed under anaerobic conditions [1]. The strain that evolved to import citrate under aerobic conditions had a duplication of the transporter gene which put ...


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There is a relatively simple (and yet logical) answer: You can use the media as soon as they are cold enough for your desired culture temperature. So if you want to use the media at 30°C, there is no need to wait longer. The media will only warm up again in the incubator until this temperature is reached. The addition of antibiotics is also uncritical, ...


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If not using antibiotics or other additives, it's just a matter of medium being cold enough. If it's too hot, the yeast (or whatever you are inoculating) might get killed or heat-shocked, which you maybe don't want. Since the incubator will bring the culture to 30C anyway, there's no point cooling it past that point. Yeast are probably fine at 37C, maybe ...


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Yes, it is possible to reuse yeast in both beer and wine fermentation - commercial brewers do it all the time for cost savings and batch reproducibility, and although I'm not as familiar with making wine, many sites including this one say it's perfectly fine, as long as the viability of the cells is high enough. The yeast aren't necessarily in ...


3

Turgor Pressure(T.P) is defined as the amount of pressure inside a cell solely due to its water content, whereas Osmotic Pressure(Pi) is defined as the pressure required to stop osmotic flow between the cell and a pure solvent when the pressure exerted by water is zero. Osmotic Pressure is often given as the negative of the Osmotic Potential(or Solute ...


2

One very important resource is EUROSCARF. http://web.uni-frankfurt.de/fb15/mikro/euroscarf/ It is one of the very famous and dedicated strain repository for yeast (S. cerevisiae) strains. You can even find some very useful yeast plasmids here. Another resource I would recommend will be the original labs, which made the mutant strains/plasmids. Yeast ...


1

When glucose and fructose are fermented separately, the uptake profiles indicate that both sugars are utilized at similar rates. However, when fermentations are conducted in media containing an equal concentration of glucose and fructose, glucose is utilized at approximately twice the rate of fructose. The preferential uptake of glucose also occurred when ...


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The gut microbiome is extremely complicated, and almost anything related to it is only partially known, therefore prone to oversimplification. Trying to explain the phenomenon of gut fermentation syndrome in such a limited fashion (age, gender, ethnicity, quantity of one particular yeast, etc.) will not help us understand it. Common yeasts (C. albicans, ...


1

In addition to the 4 nucleotide letters, there are letters that mean "the letter is one of these two or three: M = aMine = A or C R = puRine = A or G W = Weak (two hydrogen bonds) = A or T S = Strong (three hydrogen bonds) C or G Y = pYrimadine = C or T K = Ketone = G or T B = not A D = not C H = not G U = not T I would guess the the lowercase ...


1

I agree it can be extremely confusing sometimes to find the right data. Do you know RSAT (Regulatory Sequences Analysis Toolkit) ? If you go in "help & contact", and "motif databases", you'll find the Yeastract database: http://rsat-tagc.univ-mrs.fr/rsat/motif_databases/Yeastract/ I thought it would also be on JASPAR, but couldn't find it. Then for ...


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From comments I understood that you need to predictions in bulk. You can use API based system of JPred. They allow you to submit more than 1000 jobs per user per day. You can go through instructions step by step from their documentation. It looks simple ! Another hit I got while searching is Phyre2. I am sure there are many such servers.


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I assume it has an analogous function in ligation buffers. There it apparently takes up a large proportion of the volume and thereby increases the chance of interaction between bits of DNA. In a transformation buffer it should increase the chance of DNA getting into a cell. Unfortunately the only reference I found for this was at Bitesizebio: ...


1

Most of the loss of light being transmitted through individual cells is not absorbed, rather it is scattered (redirected from its original direction to a new one without loss of energy). There is actually not very much in cells that can absorb visible light, and virtually nothing at all that can absorb many red or near-infrared wavelengths. Scattering ...


1

First, the glucose is reduced by anaerobic fermentation to ethanol and carbon dioxide. The yeast uses the produced energy for a fast growth and division (1). As soon as all glucose is consumed the metabolism of the yeast changes from anerobic fermentation to aerobic respiration (oxygen is required). This is called diauxic shift. During this time the yeast ...



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