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15

The whole process is called osmosis. In it there is the flow of liquid along a concentration gradient. Water then flows from the side which contains the low concentration of dissolved molecules (this can be salts or sugar for example) to the side with the higher concentration until it reached equilibrium. This principle is shown in the image below (all ...


4

In eukaryotic cells there is no difference between a mother and a daughter cell - the later is an exact copy of the mother cell. This is true for yeasts as well for example for human cells. The only thing that happens over time is that the telomeres at the end of the chromosomes get shorter (unless the cell has an active telomerase which most cells doesn't) ...


4

I have never worked much with yeast, but I can still give some answers: Salmon sperm is used as a the so called "carrier DNA". It is thought to bind to the yeast cell wall and thus prevents that the DNA which shall be transformed does so. This raises the transformation efficiency. See here for more details: "Transformation of yeast by lithium ...


3

This video from a senior lecturer at the University of Liverpool who specialises in ageing talks about the theories of ageing. He touches on the DNA damage theory. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jc4yK0zZ-cQ Note that when talking about DNA damage theory, we are specifically talking about damage to the process of cell renewal by DNA damage repair mechanisms ...


2

This is a question which is not easy to answer, especially the 50.000bp number (which I haven't found anywhere in there literature). However, I found some evidence, partly derived from plant and mammal artificial chromosomes (references 1 and 2), partly from the original publication from Murray and colleagues (reference 3). The problems with small ...


2

I think only b.) is true. a. I cannot find evidence that maltose is toxic to yeasts (and I would hardly believe it, because it is a glucose dimer), however I found evidence, that yeasts might need the presence of oxygen to process maltose. 1977 - The Requirement of Oxygen for the Utilization of Maltose, Cellobiose and D-Galactose by Certain Anaerobically ...


2

These sequences do not have any standard i.d. The information in Saccharomyces Genome Database is also obsolete (2005) and does not have these identifiers. These sequences can be found here (in the same site). Each species has a short name: ORGANISM Short Name S.cerevesiae Scer S. bayanus Sbay S. paradoxus Spar A. gossypii Agos ...


2

Yes, it is possible to reuse yeast in both beer and wine fermentation - commercial brewers do it all the time for cost savings and batch reproducibility, and although I'm not as familiar with making wine, many sites including this one say it's perfectly fine, as long as the viability of the cells is high enough. The yeast aren't necessarily in ...


1

Most of the loss of light being transmitted through individual cells is not absorbed, rather it is scattered (redirected from its original direction to a new one without loss of energy). There is actually not very much in cells that can absorb visible light, and virtually nothing at all that can absorb many red or near-infrared wavelengths. Scattering ...


1

OK, the first step must be to map all these IDs to the same database. Try using http://uniprot.org if you want protein sequences else, look for each of them and find the corresponding Refseq ID. Since you have IDs from multiple databases, you might need to google them individually. If you know the ID type of each identifier you have, you can use a tool like ...


1

You're right, the answer is b since the presence of oxygen would lead to aerobic respiration and not fermentation. If maltose was toxic, the yeast wouldn't grow. Proteins are required for growth, but the yeast is growing. Any temperature that is extreme enough to prevent fermentation would also prevent other cellular processes and the yeast wouldn't ...



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