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11

Various features of brain,skull and beak anatomy help to achieve protection. A paper was published in PLoSOne in 2011 on this very topic: Why do woodpeckers resist head impact injury: a biomechanical investigation There is also a very readable summary on the BBC website. I advise that you read the whole article, but here is a quotation which lists the ...


6

Gibson (2006) identified three characteristics that help woodpeckers avoid brain injury: their small size, which reduces the stress on the brain for a given acceleration the short duration of the impact, which increases the tolerable acceleration the orientation of the brain within the skull, which increases the area of contact between the ...


3

Internal or external ears is Not Relavent to an animal giving birth or laying eggs... Examples Sea Lions - External Ears - Live Birth Seal - Internal Ears - Live Birth Sharks - Internal Ear - Eggs (Oviparous), Live Birth (Viviparious), and Egg cases in mothers womb hatch producing young that feed on siblings before a live birth (Ovoviviparious) Dolphins - ...


3

This due to a phenomenon called "cold shock". This induces a number of physiological changes in the fishs metabolism and also in its behaviour and can lead to death. The first paper cites some reasons in table 1: Brain and central nervous system response: Changes in neuronal activity Catecholamine and corticosteroid response: Release of hormones due to ...


3

Looks like a mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) to me. Location, appearance, and minimal tail all match. A bit more detail: Where I'm from on Washington's Olympic Peninsula, they're not uncommon, but Butte County is near the southern end of their distribution (eol map page) and they may be less common there, and limited to cooler higher elevations (Beier ...


2

Here are some examples: symbiosis between genetic modified yeast cell populations (Shou W et al. 2007) symbiosis between green algae and embryonic chick connective tissue (Buchsbaum R et al. 1934) symbiosis between EcoBot II and microbial fuel cells (Ieropoulos, Ioannis, et al. 2005)


2

It is a torrent salamander. Most likely this is the southern torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus)


2

The reason why the cuttlefish is colour blind is because it just has one type of cone cell. Humans have three different types, each sensitive to a different color of light. With only one cone type, you couldn’t differentiate between different colors (reference). A study was conducted in the lab of Dr Lydia M. Mäthger where two different ...


1

it is symi bird and more over it is commonly called as collared dove its a resident of symi and would have brought to australia by other means you can find a list off all the symi birds here


1

I think this is a Barbary dove (or Ringneck dove). See this image (from the here): More information can be found here and here. The second pages shows also images of different color variations.


1

Your logic seems fine to me.. Option B: The hatching at an advanced stage is critical for imprinting. This is wrong because Konrad Lorenz (who rediscovered imprinting) demonstrated how incubator-hatched geese would imprint on the first suitable moving stimulus they saw within what he called a "critical period" between 13–16 hours shortly after ...


1

That looks like some sort of rodent. The rodent stomach, while not as acidic as the human one, is still strongly acidic: The mouse stomach pH was 3.0 (fed) and 4.0 (fasted), and the corresponding values in the rat were 3.2 (fed) and 3.9 (fasted). From this article Since it's clear from the picture that the organism had just eaten (the stomach had ...


1

I think it depends on hunger, preferences.... Domestic cats can pretty much eat it all. They might discard items they can't digest like fur, relatively large bones... other than that what they leave behind is rather individual. I'm guessing this cat doesn't like salads. Typically I haven't seen hunting cats discard digestive organs. Aside from fur and ...


1

Do not forget domesticated animals that we now keep as pets. It's not unreasonable to argue that the relationship between dogs/cats and humans has a symbiotic character. The pet gets foodand shelter whereas the owner benefits in other ways, e.g. companionship, deterrence of enemies, herding,...



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