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6

No, fish scales are dermal (= formed in derma) bones like skull roof bones. Scales in reptiles are formed by epidermis and are made primarily of protein (from keratinocytes), being similar in derivation to hair, feather and nails. On the other hand, in reptiles one must differentiate between scales and osteoderms (= scutes). Scutes are widespread among ...


3

It seems like they are not affected by fluorescent light frequency. I did not find anything about their visual sampling rate. Their hearing is between 0-200Hz with an average of 86Hz so I guess the visual sampling rate is under this, but that's just a guess. We conclude that at the illumination levels used in this experiment, the hens did not perceive ...


3

I think I found it. It can be Lacewings: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chrysopidae


3

It's a general phenomenon that the time scale correlates with the size scale of complex systems. Energy consumption is the main concern dealing with the speed for biological organizations. In the absolute sense, a turtle has a higher speed than a small bug. But based on their sizes, the bug seems much quicker and faster. So we need to normalize the speed ...


2

An increase in linear dimension by $x$ causes an increase of $x^3$ in volume and mass. The force that a muscle can generate roughly scales with the cross-sectional area of the muscle, an increase of $x^2$ for a muscle scaled by a factor of $x$. This means that larger animals need proportionally larger muscles (by a factor of $\sqrt {x}$) to achieve ...


2

It is more complicated than this, but... I don't think it has as much to do with the refractive index of water but rather the shape of our corneas and the loss of this shape advantage under water, for if the eyes are protected by goggles, one can see quite clearly underwater (much the same as a camera can, as the shape of it's lenses are not affected). Any ...


2

It belongs to Pentatomidae family. More on the Wiki page


1

Dehorning of rhinos has been tried with limited success. Poachers have killed dehorned rhinos anyway, either out of spite or to avoid tracking worthless prey in the future. There is the problem of anesthesia (always a risk) and the fact that rhino horns are usually not destroyed but saved in the event of decriminalization. But at least horn grows back. ...


1

I can suggest three books, none of them cover all those aspects, though: 1) The Foundations of Ethology, Konrad Lorenz. The best introduction I know for the field of ethology. Lorenz is called by some "the father of ethology". 2) Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, Edward Wilson. The deepest study of animal societies I know of. 3) Evolutionary Ecology, Eric ...



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