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Jan
18
comment how do macrophages have the capacity to digest pathogen in opsonization
There are multiple mechanisms to induce phagocytosis by macrophages. One includes B-cell antibodies (specifically the Fc region) and another includes chemokines emitted by local cells that can also induce phagocytosis. I do not have my material with me at the moment, but the short answer is: Macrophages can do both. They can eat pathogens without antibody stimulation, but antibodies can also stimulate them into action.
Jan
16
comment Father with mutated mtDNA- why isn't his offspring at risk?
@anongoodnurse "Paternal Inheritance of Mitochondrial DNA in Mice" - Nature 1991. The truth is that some paternal mtDNA is passed along, but the undergrad level generalization is that "no" paternal mtDNA is passed because the amount is practically non-existent outside of rare cases. In those rare cases then mtDNA can cause metabolic issues, like the 28 year old case study by Scwhartz in 2002.
Jan
15
answered Father with mutated mtDNA- why isn't his offspring at risk?
Dec
2
awarded  Popular Question
Oct
2
comment How long does a signal from the brain take to reach the limbs?
@Christian - Roughly half, I'd assume. A full reflex arc is from a sensory neuron to the spinal column and back out to the muscles. The difference is probably due to length and the added junctions.
Oct
1
comment How long does a signal from the brain take to reach the limbs?
@shigeta - They're some overlap (the Vagus is a good example), but the function maps to the fiber type fairly well since space is the primary limiting factor for the peripheral system. However, I'll admit I haven't refreshed myself of the topic for a while, so it's possible the ratios are less strict than I believe.
Oct
1
answered How long does a signal from the brain take to reach the limbs?
Sep
30
awarded  Explainer
Sep
25
comment What is a catalytic domain of an enzyme?
AFAIK MattDMo is correct. The catalytic site is the active site where the reaction takes place that triggers the conformation change. He is also correct about there being nearly infinite potential catalytic site designs.
Sep
24
awarded  Autobiographer
Sep
22
awarded  Proofreader
Sep
21
revised Difference between Appendix and the Cecum?
Better grammar.
Sep
7
comment Why do we absorb vitamins better from whole foods than from pills?
@user6035 - Yes, you could eat an artificial diet of macronutrients and micronutrients that would satisfy your biochemical needs. It would probably be "healthy" in that you would probably continue to live without issues you weren't already predisposed to. How other chemicals and compounds contribute to our health are unknown (think antioxidants), but have the potential to contribute significantly. However, please consult medical professionals for further info if you intend to pursue this. Due to genetic variation your body might have greater or lesser needs than the recommendations.
Sep
7
answered Why do we absorb vitamins better from whole foods than from pills?
Aug
13
comment How does strength of a pulse related to EKG(ECG)?
Predict? I have no idea. I know V-tach and A-tach can be reasonably predicted by increasingly chaotic signals on an EKG, but I don't think the equipment would have the granularity to predict "strong" and "weak" beats.
Aug
13
comment What is the point of having evolved two nostrils?
I doubt it's so much that two nostrils are that much more beneficial than one as much as that most complex organisms follow bilateral symmetry for their body design. That said, your body will clog one and keep the other clear during fevers, allergies, or when it's cold to prevent it from drying out completely.
Aug
12
revised Why is oxygen needed for the electron transfer phosphorylation?
added 152 characters in body
Aug
12
answered Why is oxygen needed for the electron transfer phosphorylation?
Aug
8
awarded  Yearling
Jul
25
answered Can neurotransmitter depletion cause short-term drug tolerance?